Kopan Course No. 08 (1975)

By Kyabje Lama Zopa Rinpoche
Kopan Monastery, Nepal, 1975 (Archive #089)

These teachings were given by Lama Thubten Zopa Rinpoche at the Eighth Kopan Meditation Course at Kopan Monastery, Nepal in 1975. The transcripts are lightly edited by Tsultrim Davis.

You may also download the entire contents of these teachings as a pdf.

Section Seven: Lectures 31 to 35

LECTURE 31:  December 5, 1975 (morning)

WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE SUFFERING OF SAMSARA
From the Guru Yoga prayer, the glance meditation, Yontan shir gyurma, as it is said in that prayer, “As oneself fell in the samsaric ocean...” This way is better, by making sentences easier, “By seeing also all the sentient beings like oneself, drowned in the samsaric ocean. To be able to train the mind in the best thought bodhicitta, bearing the burden of releasing the sentient beings. Please grant me blessings.”

This is making request to the merit field, to the guru-buddhas to grant blessings to be able to see also other sentient beings are suffering in samsara, they are also caught, drowned in the samsaric ocean and suffering, suffering in various ways, just like the sufferings of different realms that we have been making meditation, like that. “Also the sentient beings drowned in the samsaric ocean and suffering in different ways, as oneself also drowned in the samsaric ocean and suffering in many different ways”. Then, totally talking about the whole of samsaric sufferings, the suffering of suffering, changeable suffering, then all-pervading suffering. Then, “And train the mind in the best thought, bodhicitta, bearing the burden releasing the sentient beings,” that means, the bodhicitta, bearing the burden, the responsibility to make the sentient beings to be released from all the sufferings, lead into enlightenment.

This quotation, this request, it is very interesting subject. Just this quotation itself explains how to practice the bodhicitta, how to develop the bodhicitta. It very clearly explains how to develop the bodhicitta, how to practice it. How does it explain? It explains that to receive bodhicitta and to develop the bodhicitta, it is necessary to see as deep as possible, as wide as possible other sentient beings’ sufferings. Necessary to feel unbearable about their sufferings. So to feel really unbearable with their sufferings and to really clearly see, have wide understanding of their samsaric sufferings, then first, that depends on recognizing one’s own samsaric sufferings. Not just recognizing a few shortcomings, a few sufferings of samsara, not like this. Not enough just the person can explain a few words, a few shortcomings of samsara, that’s not enough. There’s a need very deep understanding, deep unbearable feeling with one’s own samsaric suffering.

Then, especially, generally, like this, the cause of samsara, what are the causes? How does one bind oneself in samsara? Because of delusion and karma. Besides not understanding delusions, different types of delusions, besides not understanding the different types of karma, then knowing also how the delusion produces karma, how the delusion and karma binds us in samsara, not knowing obliges us to circle around in samsara. And also not knowing the various shortcomings, the sufferings of samsara.

Then for instance, arhats, why is it difficult for arhats to receive bodhicitta? First of all, one thing is, such that great blissfulness state, continuously mind-absorbed, concentrated in that state, never waking up, not leaving that, not waking up from that state. Like ordinary example, person who is intoxicated, who feels as it is pleasure, as his mind is intoxicated by drinking wine, then due to the mind being intoxicated by wine, then he drinks more and more, he doesn’t want to stop it. Or like the person who doesn’t want to get up early in the morning, who thinks it is warm and kind of pleasure and so even though he is not sleeping, even though he is not falling asleep, even though he is waking from sleep, also he doesn’t see that much important get up and to make prostrations or make offerings or sit in meditations, practicing meditations, things like this, doesn’t see that much importance, so doesn’t see so much urgent, so needed to do these things for the benefit of even oneself. Why? Because that person doesn’t really that much feel, doesn’t have deep understanding of the samsaric suffering, and as he doesn’t have that much understanding, then he doesn’t have that much the upset feeling, the unbearable feeling with the samsaric sufferings. That’s why he thinks, that’s how he thinks, instead of getting up early and doing these things, it’s more pleasant to sleep, to lay down. It’s more pleasant to sleep in the sleeping bag. The person thinks like this, he sees that as more important, at that time his mind thinks in that way, feels in that way.

Like this example, firstly the arhats deeply concentrate in the blissful sphere, in that state, not wanting to wake up from that state. Also, arhat himself is free from samsaric suffering, one thing is himself is free from samsaric suffering—also one reason like this, why difficult to receive bodhicitta, like this. Due to such this condition, such this mental state, that’s how arhats they stay in that state for eons, eons. Even a person who received perfect human rebirth and has received such as Mahayana teachings, or such as Vajrayana teachings—Mahayana teachings, Vajrayana, Paramitayana teachings, like the teachings on bodhicitta, then Vajrayana teachings, the teachings cannot be digested by the person’s mind. The person’s mind is not receptive to receive these Vajrayana teachings and the teachings on bodhicitta, because they are very profound, very difficult to practice, and the mind is not receptive to receive these teachings, so receive these teachings and then show, generate heresy. Instead of generating devotion to these teachings and to practicing in the person, sometimes it generates heresy and the wrong conceptions, wrong views. So by generating heresy, what it does, what it causes for the person is that it makes the person to be born in the narak realms. Then, the person is born in narak realms and then suffered there for certain length of time, then, after that, after finishing that karmic result, again he is born perfect human rebirth because of the previous karma, then follow the path and then he receive enlightenment.

So even while this person circles around many times like this, first being born human being, then by receiving teachings he received heresy and then born in naraks, then again born as human being, then followed, practiced the path, then by following the path he received enlightenment—even while he did all this work by going in different realms, still the arhat is there in the same state. The arhat, even this person has done that much, finished that much work, received enlightenment already by going in the hell and also received enlightenment, that arhat is still in that same state, still not received enlightenment. There are things happening, there are things like this.

So therefore, there happened previous times like this, many happened like this. One time like this happened. There’s one arhat, pratyeka arhat, called “Protection of Light.” Nyen-tu is “the hearer,” this one arhat was called “the Hearer, Protection of Light,” Nyen-tu O-zer. There were about sixty monks, and by showing them teachings he can make then to receive arhat in the lifetime. By receiving teaching from this arhat, Nyen-tu O-zer, these sixty monks can receive arhat in this lifetime. Then all of a sudden Manjushri discovered that if these sixty monks received arhat in the lifetime, then for eons, eons, for long time, for incredible time, they won’t receive enlightenment, it will take much time to receive enlightenment. So what happened is before the sixty monks received teachings, Manjushri quickly went to give teaching to those sixty monks, to show Mahayana teaching. So what happened is those sixty monks, their mind is not receptive, not capable to understand, not capable to handle the teachings on bodhicitta. So, because it involved enlightening sentient beings, working for sentient beings, their limited minds couldn’t stand it, couldn’t figure it out, couldn’t stand it. Therefore, these monks generated heresy. Because of Manjushri showing the Mahayana teachings, they received heresy, the wrong conceptions arising. By that, it made them to be born in narak.

So after Manjushri showed them teachings, they got heresy, then one of the followers of Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, I think Kungawo—I’m not sure, the person who explained like this to Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, Kungawo, Vajrapani or I think Kungawo. So after Manjushri has shown the teachings, they got heresy, and then born in the naraks. And then Guru Shakyamuni Buddha said, “It’s not because Manjushri is unskillful, it’s not because Manjushri doesn’t know the methods and because he is unskillful, it doesn’t mean this. That is because if they had received teachings from that arhat, then they would have received arhat stage in this lifetime, then for a long time they would not receive enlightenment, for many eons. So why Manjushri has shown the Mahayana teachings, even though they are not receptive, that is because Manjushri is skillful. In that way, by beings born in naraks, they can receive enlightenment quicker.” So like this happened.

EVERY WORD OF DHARMA BRINGS BENEFIT 
So therefore, what I’m saying is then however, because of these reasons, also I think, usually the people who come in the meditation course, even though they listen one day teachings, even though they didn’t spend two weeks or they did not spend even one month. Just even hearing one day teachings, or then five days even, even seven days. Especially hearing few words of benefits of bodhicitta, hearing even a few words of Mahayana teachings, teachings on bodhicitta. Even the person did not continue the whole course, did not listen to the whole meditation, still, his coming here in the meditation, his attending the meditation, his just coming here, just hearing of that, by hearing just even that much, by his coming here life becomes meaningful, life did not become completely empty. His life had been much better than person who never heard anything about Dharma in the lifetime. Person who lives in the West, never heard anything about Dharma in the lifetime, even ten words of Dharma, besides not hearing Mahayana teachings. Especially, usually in the course, beginning, even at the beginning of courses, all the time I talk about the, try to explain the benefits of the bodhicitta, usually in other courses like this. That’s also my concentration, hope, expectation, concentration is like that, like this example as I mentioned, the stories that I mentioned.

Like this, even though, what I think is, I think that even the person who came here, just listening one day, two days, three days, then did not continue whole meditation, I think from my side, very lucky. I think even though to listen one day teachings, no matter how much expenses they made, starting from the home, then making all these preparations, even though they probably came here, planning like this from home, starting from, since the idea came, since with this idea they made preparation, making expenses, trying to come here, pack up things then making many expenses. Then each step that they made from home, each expenses they made to come here from home, then in airplane, then coming, I think whatever expenses that he has done, each step that he did, that he made to come here, I think it’s worthwhile, I think it’s beneficial, it’s worthwhile, it’s not meaningless, it’s not empty. By doing that, that made him to reach here, then that’s how he got chance to listen Dharma, even a few words, besides the Mahayana teaching, just generally the Dharma, what is explained by the Buddha. This is what I think. I think. It is kind of childish, it is kind of foolish, not continuing to listen to the teachings, with a little temporal troubles, then the person renouncing Dharma, it is kind of foolish, it is kind of childish, it is kind of limited mind. But in another way of thinking, in the opposite way thinking, for the people who are in the West and many other people, life is completely empty even though they are born as human being. Life finishes without hearing even four words, eight words of the the Buddha’s teachings. Nothing, no impression, no seed is planted in the mind, nothing. Born as human being but the life finished empty, used in other way. Without leaving, without planting even one seed, without leaving even a small impression of the Buddhadharma in the mind. So, thinking in that way, even the person who listen one or two days, I think it’s very lucky, very fortunate, it is something, it is object that we can rejoice in. This is what I think.

Sometimes, after some time, we talk, just Lama Yeshe and myself, just talking, Lama Yeshe was telling me that these people, how pity they are, they came from such far countries, by making so much expenses. Then I said “Oh yeah”—but you know, because I don’t have compassion, my mind is very cruel, very negative mind, I said, “Yeah, in the West they make so much expenses, they climb on the mountains, they make incredible expenses, they go whole around the world, they make billions, billions, millions, millions, so much expenses for their life, to take care just their own life, unnecessary expenses. They make so much in all their life since they were born, so much to enjoy the pleasure, so much incredible expenses.” So I said, “Just coming here is nothing, the expenses what they make to come here, to listen to teaching is nothing, and still no matter how much they spend, it is worthwhile, it is worthwhile what expenses he has made to listen to teachings, coming here to listen to teachings.” Also in the teachings explained like this.

Then thinking to take precepts, such as the ordination, precepts. With this idea, with this decision to take precepts, then from the place where the person is, each step that he made, each step that he did to come to take the precepts, each step that he made, it has so many incredible benefits, it has so much benefits, especially in such this degenerated time, this poor time, this degenerated time in the world, when the whole world in more danger, so much suffering, so much danger. Such degenerated time, time of degenerating teachings, when the people’s mind become more cruel keeping precepts at a time such as this, even just for one day, it has greater, much more greater benefits than previous times, in good times when the world wasn’t in that much danger and not so much chaos, not so much suffering. During those times, the teaching existed and was not degenerated. During those times, when there’s good time, if during those times one was keeping precepts, the benefits as many the number of the sands of the Pacific, for that much number of eons, that much number of buddhas, you make offerings, make much offering, and charity to the sentient beings, compared to that, then, during degenerated times such as this, even one day keeping precepts has much more benefits. The benefits of one day keeping precepts during such a degenerated time, while the world is in more dangers, can never compare. The benefits can never compare, the other merits, of making that much offerings to that much number of buddhas for that much number of eons, cannot compare.

Then especially if the person came from such far place with the idea to sincerely practice Dharma, to control the mind, to benefit for other sentient beings, there’s no question, even each step that he made from home to come here, everything, every activity, effort that he put, no question it is beneficial, worthwhile, no need doubt.

[Pipi break]

Because of these reasons, it is something that we can, it is something that we can feel happy or which we can rejoice in this time. What an opportunity, what we have done this time!

Therefore, it is important to direct the mind in this precious thought of bodhicitta. To receive this bodhicitta depends on following the graduated path to enlightenment. Before listening to this, it is also necessary to cultivate the motivation, necessary to have motivation to listen to the teachings of the graduated path to enlightenment, to receive enlightenment for the benefit of other sentient beings.

Then, without need of repeating the outlines, then taking the essence with the perfect human rebirth, as it is divided into three outlines, the graduated path of the lower being in general, graduated path of the middle being in general, graduated path of the higher being, three paths divided like this, the part of this is from the graduated path of the higher being.

EQUILIBRIUM MEDITATION TO GENERATE BODHICITTA 
Then to actualize the bodhicitta, one should know how to actualize the bodhicitta, the process of the meditations. Then, in regards the equilibrium meditations, there are different ways, according to the lineage of the lamas giving teachings, there are different ways, different form of meditations in the equilibrium meditation. Such as we try to equalize with the stranger, then with the enemy, then with the friend, or equalizing all three things at the same time, there are different ways of checking the meditation. With the stranger usually what we have is indifferent feeling, there’s indifferent feeling, indifferent thought, mind kind of renouncing, mind kind of doesn’t care. Mind renouncing and mind that doesn’t care are different from the mind toward the enemy. Usually how we feel with the strangers, for instance when we see people in the street, a stranger that we, not friend, not enemy, mind doesn’t care, sort of, because he didn’t give help or didn’t give harm, nothing. There’s indifferent feeling like this. So, however, there are different ways of checking the equilibrium meditation like this, with each person doing like this, or sometimes doing all three together. However, the main point of the equilibrium meditation is that, without equalizing the objects of anger and attachment, without equalizing them, one cannot stop, one cannot control the anger and attachment. So the main point of the equilibrium meditation, the main aim, is to destroy the attachment and anger, those two things, to control this by equalizing the objects, by equalizing as the same those things between which the negative mind usually discriminates.

When you have received the realization of the equilibrium meditation, if you have received the realization of the equilibrium meditation, then not so much problem, because even other people that give harm or help, whatever they do, different things, your mind doesn’t discriminate, as it would have before. Then also, in that way, the anger and the attachment do not rise, you can control. Then, even though the equilibrium realization is not received, then whenever there is a problem, attachment arising and anger arising in the daily life, if this meditation technique is used, equalizing the objects, this technique helps to solve the problem in the mind, the rising the anger and attachment. It is greatly beneficial. Also it is very quick to cut the mind’s problems. As soon as the mind problem is stopped, as soon as it becomes pacified, relaxed by using the equilibrium meditation, the technique, then also, all of a sudden, just in one minute, even though you might be terribly angry before, just in one minute, without taking one hour, just two, three minutes, all of a sudden, you become completely opposite to that angry e personality that you had. Completely opposite to the person who was before, the first minute when you were angry. Even two minutes can completely change the whole personality, these two things. And become again good friend, helping each other instead of harming. Helping each other, also, without attachment, without anger involved. Like this, it is extremely useful.

Then, in regard practicing bodhicitta, there are two forms of, there are two ways to practice, there are two process of meditation to receive bodhicitta: The first is the seven techniques of Mahayana cause and effect, as it is described in the Meditation Course book, translated like this. There are seven techniques like this: realizing all the sentient beings have been mother, then remembering kindness, then repaying kindness, then generating the love, then generating the great love and the great compassion, then developing the will and then the pure thought of bodhicitta. Like this, the seven techniques of Mahayana cause and effect.

And then the other way of trying to receive bodhicitta, another process of meditation to receive bodhicitta, that is equalizing one and other, changing one into others. By equalizing one and other, knowing the shortcomings of self-cherishing thought and the benefits of cherishing others that demonstrates why it is worthy to take more care for others than oneself. Just the benefits of cherishing others, those benefits themselves become reason why one should take more care for others than oneself. Then changing one and others. Maybe changing oneself into others. Then the tong-len practice, the meditation taking and giving. Then, they are like this, these are one technique, one of the meditation process which leads to the bodhicitta.

Then the seven Mahayana techniques, however, those are from, all these teachings originated from Guru Shakyamuni Buddha. The seven Mahayana techniques, how that method is received, the lineage is from, as it is the usual lineage, from through Maitreya then Asanga, then Guru Serlingpa, Atisha’s guru Lama Serlingpa, then to Atisha. The seven Mahayana techniques is from Lama Serlingpa passed to Atisha, then from there, Kadampa followers, then Guru Tsongkhapa has received this technique.

Also, the other technique, other meditation technique to receive bodhicitta, that is from Manjushri to those other pandits such as, originally from Guru Shakyamuni Buddha then through Manjushri, then to those other pandits such as Shantideva, then from there Atisha has received, then Atisha gave, handed down the lineage of these teachings, techniques, to Kadampa followers. Gradually, then from Atisha to the follower Dromtönpa, then Potowa, then from Potowa then especially the second technique to train the mind in the bodhicitta, the Kadampa follower, Atisha’s disciple, Potowa gave the technique, the special technique, to his follower, Langri Tangpa, one Kadampa geshe, Langri Tangpa and Sharawa, two followers.

During those times, the teachings these techniques, the special technique to actualize the bodhicitta, equalizing one and other and taking more care for other than oneself, these techniques, this bodhicitta technique, this teaching has been kept very secret during those times because this technique is very profound, very profound technique. This teaching is not something that just any ordinary people can accept or can understand, not like this. It doesn’t fit. Only the one whose mind is strong, who has stronger mind, higher intelligence, whose mind is not limited, whose intelligence is not limited. Like usually we say the person whose mind is very strong, he can make so many plans, he can do so many things, so many things he can handle, he can do so many things, even though it takes much time. Like that, no matter how much difficult it is, he can do those things. Person who has big mind. This special technique doesn’t fit to the ordinary people who don’t have such big mind, high intelligence. So they get frightened, if this teaching is explained, they get frightened, they generate heresy and they get frightened, things like this. They don’t want to practice. Another way of saying, doesn’t want to practice, by feeling scared.

Then, this teaching has been kept very secret and passed from one to another disciple, from Potowa, starting from Atisha, receiving, giving very secretly. Then from Sharawa and Geshe Langri Tangpa, Sharawa, they gave this teaching, I’m not sure which one gave, I think Sharawa gave this teachings, this special technique to the geshe called Chekawa, a Kadampa follower Chekawa. The Chekawa, during his time, Kadampa Geshe Chekawa, he thought, “If this teaching is always kept secret, it will get lost after some time, it will get lost. Then there wouldn’t be any more continuity of the lineage of this teaching and people wouldn’t receive this teaching, the teaching will be lost.” So because thinking like this, having such concentration like this, then he publicized this teaching, this special technique, he did not keep secret, he publicized. Publicized doesn’t mean newspapers, with pictures, things like this, doesn’t mean like this, but in the monasteries, where he gives teachings. Usually this special technique of bodhicitta is not explained in a group of people, only one or two persons, just in the quiet places, like this, not given in a group, in public, not explained. So then, from Kadampa Geshe Chekawa, during his time, then he gave this teaching in public.

So however, the other one, seven Mahayana technique is usually kind of technique for that the person who has low intelligence, who doesn’t have that much strong mind to practice. The other special technique in order to actualize the bodhicitta, the seven Mahayana technique, for them, it’s easy. The other, equalizing one and others, taking more care for other sentient beings than oneself, this part of the technique, special technique is for those who have higher intelligence, whose mind doesn’t get frightened, whose mind can accept or can handle it, understand it. However, Guru Tsongkhapa has put together these two techniques, two different techniques for different minds, both to generate, to actualize the bodhicitta.

So usually the way the teaching is given is like this. When the person practices the meditation they practice these two techniques together, as Guru Tsongkhapa, starting from Guru Tsongkhapa, as Guru Tsongkhapa put them together like this. When the person practices this four session meditation, practice both techniques together, but usually when the teaching is explained, it’s explained with different ways. First of all seven Mahayana techniques and then afterwards the other special technique, like this. However, whether to put together or separate in meditation, I will check up.

THE SEVEN POINT CAUSE AND EFFECT MEDITATION
Then first of all, the purpose why there’s meditation, without describing too much about the process of this meditation. The first meditation, why is there the need in the meditation to try to see all sentient beings, how they have been mother? That is like this, just briefly talking like this, to generate the bodhicitta and great will. Generating the bodhicitta depends and the great will depends on that. Generating the great will that depends on having the great compassion and the great love. To generate the great compassion and great love is also like this. Also, generating great compassion without generating the great love, that great compassion cannot happen, cannot arise. One fundamental thing that depends on is generating love. Generating love, that depends on seeing the sentient beings in beauty, as heartfelt, heart-dear… [Student: Heartwarming] … heartwarming or feeling the most dear from the heart, most dear to one’s heart. As Potowa, as this Geshe, Kadampa, Potowa said, “The beautiful love, how should that be?” Then Potowa told one mother, “Like you, mother, how you see your son Polego. How that love should be, the beautiful love, how that should be is like you, the mother, how you see, how you feel with your son Polego.” If the feeling is described, like the mother, the feeling how the mother feels with one son that she has, the most heartfelt son, most dear to one’s heart, dear to her heart. Like that, the feeling, to have idea, feeling, is described like this. Like that, the mother, no matter how much the son does negative things, cruel thing, naughty, the mother always sees in beauty, somehow always sees in beauty. Aspect of most dear. So like this, how the mother views the son, how the mother feels, like that kind of love, dear to one’s heart, see in beauty all the sentient beings, like this, all the sentient beings we must see in beauty, aspect of most dear. All the sentient beings, not just some sentient beings who help you, excluding those who don’t help, not like this. Only those who like you, you see in beauty, not like that. Without excluding even one sentient being, all sentient beings see in beauty. That mainly depends on remembering the kindness of other sentient beings, that is the main thing. Remembering the kindness is the main thing, that is the main cause which makes us generate the love, the feeling of being most dear to one’s heart.

In order to help for remembering the kindness, understanding the kindness and for the base of the love and the compassion, there is the meditation on the mother sentient beings. Why mother, why not father? Then, sometimes, father and mother also not kind, negative, kind of they torture you, they do bad things, they kick you out of home, and you have friend, you have most heartfelt friend that takes care of you. Then why not friend? Can be like this? Why not friend? Then after some time also feeling, why not me? Remembering my own kindness. There’s a reason. Besides talking about human beings, just look at the animals. Even the animals, the birds, the dogs, even non-human beings, the animals, even those, look at them. Usually even those puppies, even the children of animals, even the chicks, even those they like mother, they have both father and mother but also they like mother. Most of those animals, they like mother. Intuitively they like mother. And also the mother helps, also from their, the children, from their own side, intuitively they like the mother; and even though the father helps the children they don’t pay so much attention to the father, they pay more attention to mother. Even though they have some kind of feeling of “dear father and dear mother,” whom they like is mother, generally talking. Most of the animals, even animals are like this.

So same thing with the human beings, also most children are like this. If you ask children, most of them say, if you ask whether you like father, mother, they often say mother, “I like mother.” Even though the father helps, even the father terribly works for home, even the father incredibly works, he makes money and he suffers so much to take care of the home, but somehow the child like the mother better than the father, they choose the mother, they see the mother in more beauty. As they like the mother also they see the mother in beauty. Generally most people, most children are like this.

Not only that. I’m not sure whether in the West people do like this, children, when they get beaten, I’m not sure whether they call mother, but I think in the East they call “Ma-ma! Ma-ma!” like this, “Mother!” The Tibetans, also they say “Ama!” They use their own language. Even the children, when they get beaten by other people, somehow they say, intuitively, “Ama! Ama!” when they make noise, they make noise “Ama!” Somehow they call the mother, somehow, when the father is beating, or other people, even attacked by animals, even some danger happened, or some sickness, dangers or sickness happened, they call “Ama!,” mother, like this. So, there’s a kind of intuitive feeling, like Westerners say “instinctive,” or something. However, that’s from previous habit. Usually there’s more, the feeling of being dear, seeing beauty, as the feeling of dear is more to the mother, then in that way, also the person sees the mother in more beauty.

So because of that, because of the ordinary people’s, because of this ordinary example, ordinary people’s feeling, their intuitive feeling of this, because of this, if the meditation is practiced, the checking meditation on the kindness and the way of generating the love and compassion, is done with the mother. If it is done in that way, trying to look at all sentient beings as mother, then that way it is easy to generate, to increase compassion and love, very easy, by generating the feeling of the mother with all sentient beings, by knowing how they have been mother. It makes very easy to generate compassion and love, easier and stronger, because of the feeling of the mother, and the kindness. That’s why the process of meditation itself is like this, first the mother, knowing, realizing how the sentient beings have been mother, then feeling the kindness, like this. The reason why it’s not mentioned father, why they purposely chose mother, mentioned mother, there’s a reason like this. It doesn’t mean, also like this, father has not been mother, has never been mother, and there’s certain beings who has been only father and there’s certain beings who has been only mother. There’s no such thing, no such thing. When we make meditation on being mother and the kindness, that time also we do remember also the kindness of the father. It is just a matter of giving different titles, whether you call father or not, only difference is the title, but when you make checking meditation with all sentient beings and how they have been mother and kind, that time also father is there, father is included in that. Father has been mother and then kind like this, we also remember the kindness of the father, just a matter of giving the title, father and mother like this.

Also my mother, when she got sick, I remember when I was child, just playing, small child, playing with other children, I remember my mother got sick. The rest of the children, what she had were only children, no one is big, no one is capable to go in the forest and cut firewood and bring it, carry luggage and things like this. No one is that much capable. So she is only one who looks after the children, she is only one, father is dead. Father, I didn’t see father, no idea how father looks. So she is the only one who looks after all the three or four children. So she goes outside, miles and miles to pick up, to cut firewood, then bring in the basket, bamboo basket, and then take many hours in the day, then go in the afternoon, then comes back after the sunset. Then she comes back and then, in nighttime, the children don’t know how to cook food, so they just wait for mother, outside at the door, standing, screaming, [General laughter; Rinpoche laughs], waiting for mother. Then sun went down, completely dark. Then after some time mother comes, with heavy luggage of wood. Then mother is not well, she is sick. I remember this, she was laying down near by the fireplace, and we are sitting around the fireplace. The Sherpas, they sit around the fireplace because sometimes the weather is cold [General laughter; Rinpoche laughs]. So I remember the children sitting around the fireplace, I remember even the place where I often used to sit, the specific fire-place, the wall like this, the seat, walls and the fireplace attached, and then there’s people who sit around. So all the time mother sits here, other children sit here, I often sit here, this place.

Then, one night, she got sick. After the luggage was left, then she was laying down nearby the fireplace, then screaming, screaming, the children were just listening. We were sitting around nearby the fire, and just listening. She was screaming, she was very old woman, not young woman, very old woman, but I remember, but she was when she was sick, still screaming “Ama! Ama!,” like this, when she was sick. That time, the old grandmother was there, she had very white hair, all the hairs became completely white, she lived I think around, I’m not sure, I think over eighty, she lived a long time. She was very old, but still screaming “Ama!” mentioning her. It’s kind of a funny thing. Yeah, stop here.

[Ge wa di… Dedication prayers]

LECTURE 32: December 5, 1975 (evening) - 1

THE SEVEN POINT CAUSE AND EFFECT MEDITATION (CONTINUED)
Talking about the essence of the meditation of how to see all the mother sentient beings, how they have been mother, and how they have been kind.

Generally, there’s different ways to perform checking meditation. If, sometimes, you don’t feel like, for the first checking meditation, like starting from the present mother, how all the rest of the sentient beings, starting from present mother to the father, the enemy, the friend, then rest of all the sentient beings, like this, then first make checking meditation on present mother, then gradually, as you discovered, as you found the continuity of the present mother, “She also has been my mother numberless times in previous lifetimes,” like this, then do that similarly to the father, similarly to the enemy, friend, then rest of all the sentient beings. First try to realize how the sentient beings have been mother. Then second time, after you made the checking meditation, then make checking meditation as to how the present mother has been kind, then checking her mind continuity, her previous life, how she has been kind numberless times to me. Then just like this, similar to the father, friend, enemy, then rest of all the sentient being. There’s ways to make checking meditation like this, different time, first the mother, second the kindness.

But also there’s a form of meditation, the mother and the kindness, making the checking meditation of mother, realizing the sentient beings have been mother, this and making the checking meditation on the kindness at the same time. For instance, if you don’t check the kindness, if you don’t think kindness, just being mother, just giving birth, mother—parts of the East, many countries, they think very kind, just being mother makes them she is very kind, automatic, but then it doesn’t seem that much important being mother. Somehow my feeling is that in the West, my own feeling is that in the West, just being mother doesn’t mean anything. Kind of like the leaves coming out of the trees, kind of something which doesn’t mean anything, it’s the same as the person who’s in the street, same as the person who didn’t give this present body, same kind of, doesn’t have any specific, doesn’t have any feeling. Then many times mother is kind of, also kind of enemy, is not the object of concern. More often in the West it is more important to be concerned about your friend, friend is kind of more important than mother. However, since that kind of mind doesn’t have any feeling just because of being mother, then it’s good when the checking meditation is made, it’s good to make the checking meditation together, mother and kindness relating together. In that case, this way makes sense, in this way it’s easy to generate the feeling, very easy to generate the feeling of the mother and at the same time to generate the feeling of kindness, to generatee the feeling of her being kind and also the feeling of her being dear to you.

THE FOUR WAYS OF ANALYZING THE KINDNESS OF THE MOTHER 
So, however, just mentioning the outlines, in regards to how to make checking meditation, just basic things, outlines. Then, first of all, the present mother, her being mother by giving this body, it is kind. Also she suffered very much in order to give birth to me. Then, such as, just briefly talking, think like this: “While I was in my mother’s womb, she suffered so much, feeling pains and she can’t do things, she can’t work and she can’t do things as she usually do things, jobs, going outside and working, things like that, she can’t do so much. Then also besides inside, when I was coming out, she suffered so much, incredible suffering she experienced to give birth to me. Certain food that even she wants to taste, by being concerned for me, she is forbidden, even though she wishes very much to have it, she has to suffer by forbidding, by stopping it. Also, such as losing weight, losing mother’s weight in order to give birth, and besides this, there are many other things that mother has to suffer. Like this, she has been kind. If she did not suffer, if she did not bear the suffering to give me this body, then no chance for me to be born, no chance for me now to practice Dharma, no chance to have even sense pleasures. These are her kindness.”

“Then also, in order to protect the life, she suffered so much, to protect the life, to keep away the life-hindrance, she suffered so much. Then for instance, while I was in mother’s womb, there are many things which can cause danger to my life, which can cause death to my life, many things. The mother being so concerned, her being so compassionate, so concerned for me, that there is no danger to my life and that I was comfortable. Even at the sleeping times, even regards to movement, even her movement, she tried to be so careful as much as possible for the baby, as much as she knows. Even sleeping-time, walking-time, try to walk very carefully, then try not to put other clothes, tight ones, not putting belt, being concerned for me. Also in regards food, there are many things which can cause danger to my life, then mother eats certain things.”

Then, for instance, so clear, in the West it’s so common to take birth controlling pill. “If it was taken, then after I was conceived there, if the chemical things which can cause life danger, after the consciousness is received, then things like this taken which can cause life-danger, then having specially such as the operation abortion, things like this. Mother could have done this, she could have done this. If she did this abortion, taking chemical things which cause life-danger, things like this, if she is not compassionate, if she is not concerned for me, if she did like this, I would have been dead in mother’s womb, already dead in mother’s womb, before coming out, such as killed by having abortion. I wouldn’t have chance even to come out with body, to complete even the body, no chance to practice Dharma, to hear these teachings. Here, even now, this present time, right this moment, I wouldn’t have received this chance. Also, no chance to enjoy the samsaric pleasures as I want. All these are from kindness of my mother. Then, if she has abortion or if she had something, did not take care of me, I would have been in another realm, somewhere, not having even chance to enjoy samsaric pleasures.”

“Then at the time I was born out of mother’s womb, just like animal, no difference between, completely ignorant, not knowing what cause life-danger, what makes wound. Just like the crawling creature, not knowing anything, what gives harm, what doesn’t give harm to the body, not knowing anything. Not knowing what was harmful to the life, during baby-time, all the time, day and night, all the time, the mother takes care. Always keeping, always taking care of me in the presence of her eyes, all the day, always being so much worried, always concerned, as mother is always looking at me, keeping me in the presence of her eyes, always concerned for me, what I am doing, whether I am falling down or not from the bed. Always watching whether I put things in my mouth, such as knife. At that time, not knowing anything, I was completely ignorant, had no idea, nothing, anything, dirty things, garbage, anything, harmful things, pointed things, anything whatever the hand gets, whatever the hand touches, then put in the mouth, eat, bite, like this. Always like this, the mother always protected me, even in just one day she protected me from hundreds and hundreds of life-dangers.”

“Also, spending so much time like this, even though she has many other things to do, then spending most of her time looking after me, completely concentrating on me, mentally and also with the eyes. Then also such as looking after whether I am feeling hot or cold, then changing, if it is a little bit cold, then changing clothes. Always worried like this. Always checking if there’s pipi making. If it is not cleaned, if the mother didn’t take care like this, this can cause also unhealthy, danger to the life. So all the dirty things which are coming from the nose, kakas, all the dirty things which are coming out, which makes the face and body, things, dirty, which can cause sickness, then mother try to clean.”

Like this, in Tibet, many places they do like this, the mother wipe off the baby’s kaka with hand, because with stones, with other things, it’s very rough, so they feel the baby will suffer, will feel pain, so they wipe off with hand. Also the coming from nose, they wipe off with mouth, like this, they do this, many countries they do this, because the hand is very rough, because working so hard, so hand is not soft. So they think if it is wiped off with hand, then the baby would suffer, feel pain, because baby’s skin is very soft, soft and very fragile, very thin, not tough as the mother’s skin.

Then also same thing. Even these things, we cannot say they are not our experience, because even if not in this life, we have experience that mother took care like this in other lifetimes. Mother took care, try to clean every day, how many pipis made, kakas made, all the time changing clothes, one new clothes put on, then all of a sudden that become dirty, filthy, dirty, then again another clothes put on, then again that becomes dirty, then changing. Even in one day so many clothes to wash, also nighttime. Continuously like this, she suffered to protect me from my life-dangers.

Even in regards to giving food. Many countries, places, also they do like this. The mother, first of all, chews in the mouth. First of all takes the food, then give from mother’s mouth, like the mother chicken, the chicken, like that, from mouth to mouth, the mother give food from her mouth, feeds the baby by giving food from her mouth. Also she gave only the right food, the very light food, like milk, honey, things like this, very light food, which gives healthy, which makes the strength to grow, only the right food, which can be digested by the baby, not giving other things. So in that way, there will be less distraction to the life, and the body will be healthy. Like this she suffered, not only one day, not only one month. Taking care like this is not only, completely concentrating, dedicating time on me, serving me like this, suffering so much to take care of me, and not only one day, not one month, but months and months, many months like this she took care.

For instance, generally talking, even one day we have to take care of a small baby like this, who doesn’t know anything, always becoming dirty, nothing helps, only what it does is only gettng dirty, nothing is helpful to the mother. Always you have to take care by hand, always have to watch, it’s kind of boring [General laughter, Rinpoche laughs]. Again and again cleaning, so many dirty clothes coming, again and again, then hands becoming dirty. Like this it is something very tiring, even one day to do like this is very tiring, very boring, but the mother didn’t get bored, and due to her compassion, even though it’s very tiring thing, very boring thing, no benefits for mother, nothing, however, in spite of this, from the side of mother, she doesn’t think like this. Instead of thinking that, she has much compassion, so much compassion. Instead of generating the tiring mind, being bored like this, she is only having compassion, wanting to help, wanting to take care. For instance the mother, even she doesn’t want to touch her own kaka, she doesn’t want to touch even other people’s dirty clothes, she doesn’t want to touch even other people who are dirty, but when it comes to the point of the baby’s dirty clothes, my dirty clothes, without, in spite of feeling dirty of touching, things like this, without any kind of difficult feelings of touching that, thinking that is dirty and, in spite of the dirtiness, the smells, all these things, no matter how much terrible it is, in spite of this, without any difficulty, she touches the clothes with her hand and washed. Like this she bore many difficulties, like this she suffered so much to protect the life.

Then also, besides during the baby-time, also when I’m a little bit grown, even during those times, then mother is worried, thinking that “my child who cannot complete life,” being worried that there’s no future arrangement regarding the food, clothing, things like this. If there is arrangement done for the future for the child, then maybe the child may be poor and maybe will die by starving. Things like this, so much worried. Then to save from those kind of life-dangers, then she also suffered so much to make preparation, food and clothing, those material things.

Like this, she has been kind, the present mother, she has been kind giving birth, she has been kind, suffered so much in giving birth to me. Then she has been kind, suffered so much to protect my life from dangers. Also after coming out of mother’s womb, also all the time keeping, all the time taking care of me, keeping my body warm by keeping on her lap, on her body, where there’s warm, with her body keeping warm. Always holding with the ten fingers, always holding in the hand, taking care. Whenever the mother look at me, always looking with compassionate eye, differently than how the mother looks at other people, how the mother looks at the outside, the street people, different from that, looking with compassionate eye. When the mother is looking at me, always looking with compassionate eye, always giving smile, always giving loving smile, never showing angry face. Even little bit separated away, even the mother is so busy and I have to be left there and the mother has to be away somewhere, even for a short time, even she is a little bit farther, even during those times, she was so much worried, what I was doing, what was happening, she was continuously thinking, concentrating on me. Like this she has been kind.

Then, third thing, also she has been kind suffering so much giving me enjoyments. That starts from the time I was born, she starts to give me enjoyments, the food and clothing. The time I was born, as soft as possible the clothes, as good as possible, warm as possible, she tried to buy. Like this, continuously. That is not just one, not just two pairs, three pairs. Starting from the feet up to the head, everything is covered, all the part of body is covered. That is not just one pair, two pair, three pair, many pairs like this she arranged. To take care of me she gave food and clothing, but she doesn’t receive just very easily. The money that she spent for this, the food and clothing she doesn’t receive just like rain falling from the sky, she doesn’t receive very easily. Those moneys, she worked very hard, mentally she suffered so much and physically she suffered so much to obtain this money, to receive this money. She worked so much, she spent much time working for this, spending the life for this, to receive this money. Like this she has collected the money, working so much, working for long time and bearing much difficulties, and with this money she bought those things, those enjoyments. So that’s how I received the enjoyments. If she did not take care of me, did not suffer to give me enjoyments, also, it would be impossible for me to exist now, impossible. So now, having chance to practice Dharma by existing with this human form, that is her kindness. Like this, in regards to enjoyments, it like this. Then also, in the baby-time, small baby-time, if we have to go to work, baby-time, even we can’t walk properly, we can’t go to work, we can’t make money. Then also, such as sharing, when there’s a marriage, things happening, such as sharing property, giving possessions, even if she keeps money, she stores money in bank for me, even she dies she leaves will, things like this, in regards how mother is kind in regards giving me enjoyments.

Then also she is extremely kind in educating me. When we were born from mother’s womb, we couldn’t speak even one word, same as those animals crawling on the ground, can’t speak even one word, can’t walk, just dragging the whole body on the ground. She gradually taught the language and how to speak, every day speaking like this. She taught also how to walk, things like this. At the present time we can do so many things, go to far countries, enjoy things. At present time we can walk by ourselves, communicate with other people. Besides that, also having chance to understand Dharma, to communicate in Dharma, that is all also the kindness of the mother, the kindness of the present mother. Her educating when I was baby, like this. If she did not do anything, if she has not been kind, teaching language, teaching how to walk, all these things, if she didn’t do, then I wouldn’t have all these chances. Even just to have common communication with other people, to speak and to understand, in order to obtain pleasures, the happiness of this life, also to understand Dharma, all these things, to be release from samsara, we wouldn’t have this chance. So all these things, why we have these chances to do like this, why we are capable like this, is because of the kindness of the mother. It’s not because we are so competent only on our own that without depending on mother it just kind of happened, because our own kind of power or intelligence, something like that, it is not like this.

Then same thing, wherever we travel, for instance, we can travel in any other countries. If we want to enjoy that country we can find job, we can work there, we can enjoy the place, live, stay in beautiful apartment, property, like this, enjoy things as one wishes, having jobs, receiving jobs as one wishes, making money as one wishes. All these things, also the kindness of the mother. If she did not send me to the schools, from the child-time, if she did not send me to school, if she did not send me to university, college, things like this, if she did not make expenses for that, did not send, it’s impossible, there’s no way I would get the chance to have even these samsaric pleasure, these things. By using the education that you have, by showing this paper from the education, what you received in the schools, university, you show the paper, and then receiving job as you want. Then, with that money, having the chance to enjoy possessions, places, anything that you want. All these are not because we are competent without depending on mother and they just happened, our own thing, our own power, not like this. It’s by the kindness of the mother. Even that here we can write A-B-C-D, even that here we can write notes, as one wishes, even that we are capable to write one sentence, four words, one sentence, the Dharma words, to keep in one’s book, like this, to communicate like this through letters, even just these things, having all this knowledge, this is also her kindness. It is not because we are competent, not because we are intelligent and these things happened without depending on kindness of mother. So same thing with the Dharma knowledge, you can recognize similarly. Like this, four ways of checking meditation on the kindness of the mother.

I think I stop here.

[Ge wa di… Dedication prayers]

LECTURE 33:  December 5, 1975 (evening) - 2

THE SEVEN POINT CAUSE AND EFFECT MEDITATION (CONTINUED)
For the meditation, then, as I explained, you make checking meditation on the mother, the kindness. Like this you try to remember, you make the checking meditation like this: “Then, the continuity of this present mother has been mother numberless times, she has been my mother numberless times with human body in previous lifetimes. Just as she has been my mother with human body numberless times, like this, as she has been kind to me in the present time, like this kindness, four ways she has been kind, then she has been kind like this numberless times in my previous lifetimes by being mother.” Like this you try to feel the depthlessness of this kindness in her being mother, together like this, try to feel it. Visualize your own mother. If you don’t have mother, if your mother dead, maybe you didn’t see your mother, things like this, like this you were taken care of by other families, adopted by other persons, then you visualize the other person who took care of you in baby-time. If it is taken care by some other mother, like this, then that can be visualized. You try to make checking meditation on the mother and kindness. It’s called, the name, the title of this meditation, realizing the sentient beings have been mother, the Tibetan term is called “Ma,” [the Tibetan feminine suffix]. If it is mother, whether it has to be purposely a woman, that you check up.

So, just like this, first check with the present mother, her being mother and being kind in four ways like this. Generally it’s like this, as I explained as I described each thing, it doesn’t mean each person’s present mother has done exactly each of these things. What I described is nothing, it’s just to have idea of the four main kindnesses. It doesn’t mean that what I mentioned, explained, the kindness, it doesn’t mean only that, just mentioning the titles of the kindness. When you check up, then according to your own experience, as you can remember, when you were a child or even present time, how the mother has been kind in this life. There will be different stories according to the person. However, then like this check up.

Then after checking this present life, her kindness, then think, “As the continuity of my mind is beginningless, also, therefore the continuity of my life is also beginningless. This time I was born from the present mother, it does not mean that in all these previous lifetimes I was born from, by being human being all the time, I was all the time human being and born. As the continuity of my life is beginningless, the previous life is beginningless also, and her being my mother with human body is not the first time, also continuity of her previous life has no beginning; it is beginningless.” Then, also, if you want to think logic, things like that, think “The present time her being my mother, I being her son, that isn’t the first time, that must be because there was karmic contact during previous times. Then also she must have been my mother, in other previous times, in other previous lifetimes.” Thinking, checking through karma like this. “This present mother was my mother in human body in previous lifetimes, numberless times.” First you feel this, numberless times, that she did mother with human body, the depthless, you try to feel it.

Then, after that, try to feel the kindness, like “Such kindness she has been doing to me numberless times in previous lifetimes,” try to feel it the depthless of her kindness. Without checking the other kindness, her being my mother by being dog, by being bird, by being other animals, just only trying, even her kindness done with human body, just only trying to figure it out, trying to feel it, trying to figure it out, the depthlessness of this kindness, it’s unbelievable thing. When you try to figure it out, when you try to feel it, the depthlessness of this, its unbelievable thing. It’s incredible thing. After checking this kindness and how depthless it is, it’s unbearable to harm the mother even with finger, it’s kind of unbearable, cant stand it. Even one, even three words to insult the mother, it’s kind of, after checking the depthless kindness, just with human body, after understanding such kindness like this, when you understand like this, it’s kind of, it’s an unbearable thing not helping this, it’s unbearable thing not helping the mother, not doing something for the mother. Then, after understanding this, just three or four words insulting, it’s very unbearable thing. What I mean is, it’s not something that one can dare to do. After understanding this, it’s not something, even three or four words insulting, it’s not something that one can dare to do, like this.

Then, like this, after that, there’s no one samsaric rebirth, there’s no one different samsaric rebirth that I have never taken, that I have never had the experience of taking that rebirth and not experienced numberless times in previous lifetimes, there’s no such other samsaric rebirth. No matter how many there are different types of insects, like even just the insects, incredible the number, unimaginable the numbers of the different shapes, different body of insects, like this, the animals. There are all kinds of different samsaric bodies whose birth depends on the mother, having mother, there are various kinds. Generally there’s no one samsaric rebirth that we never took, and never had the experience of that numberless times, there’s no one other samsaric rebirth, such as sura, asura, such as pretas also naraks. Those others, also, who do not depend on having mother, the birth not depending on mother, having mother. Even those other beings, those other samsaric rebirth ,which depends on mother, there’s no one different samsaric rebirth is left that I never experienced, and that I never experienced numberless times in previous lifetimes.

So just for example, the dog: Just like I experienced, I took the human body numberless times in previous lifetimes, just like this also a dog body I took numberless times in previous lifetimes. So just like this, also the present mother, not only, as she has been taking the human body numberless times, also she has been taking the dog body numberless times. She also doesn’t have any other samsaric rebirth, different samsaric rebirth that she never took, never had to experience. And not experienced numberless times, there’s no such samsaric rebirth. So this present mother has also been my mother by being dog, numberless times in previous lifetimes. There’s many ways to check. There’s no number, with dog body, there’s no numbered list of her being kind, such keeping me under her body, keeping warm, and so on. It’s numberless, her being kind, keeping under her body, away from cold, things like this.

Then, milk that I drank, her being dog, how much I drank, as she was being kind and giving milk to me. There’s no number, it’s numberless. Milk that I drank, her being dog mother, if milk has been collected, how much I drank, if it has been collected, there wouldn’t be any space left, the whole space, whole infinite space would be filled up by the milk, if it had been collected, all the milk that I have been drinking from the previous lifetimes from her, just with the dog body. However, the animals, even the dog, according to their own capability, according to their intelligence and their body, capability, that much the mother takes care the puppies. At least the way of loving, at least her what they do is licking, licking on the body, on the head, mouth, things like this, eyes, cleaning the body, licking all over the body, in spite of any dirties. Like this, at least, according to their own capability, is what they do. Also the mother did like this with the dog body, numberless times to me. When I become puppy, her being mother, then also she was so much worried of being attacked by other dogs, being attacked by other people, being attacked by other animals, like this, try to protect as much as possible. Again, with the dog, there are so many ways that the mother has been kind. Then all these things, the mother finds difficult to get food, even the mother found something, even the mother is starving, instead of the mother taking herself she is giving to the puppies. Even the puppies, they steal from the mother’s mouth, she doesn’t take it away. At least, even the animals they do like this, the mother animals, they do like this. So like this, the present mother when she was dog, has been kind to me, numberless times in previous lifetimes. Like this you can think similarly, anyway, with each animal, describing like this it takes much, much time—then as I mention few examples then you can similarize with other animals.

The example of a bird is also very good. Like the dog, my present mother, she has been my mother with the bird body numberless times. Then, for instance, in regards to kindness, there’s so much, incredible unbelievable things. For instance, the mother works in the forest to find food, then collects all the creatures, all the insects that the mother finds, collects, and then feeds one by one in the mouth. When oneself living in the nest, can’t move, cannot go to find food, then mother go outside, all the time every day, even in one day, many times go outside, find food, then feed from the mouth. Like this, according their own capability, feed by the mouth. How difficult it is to make the nest! The mother, the bird, even the small bird, they collect, even though they don’t have any hands, even though they cannot carry things with hands, even though they cannot carry things like the humans, they work with their beaks, even if it is a small beak, and they collect, they make the nest by collecting little drop of dirt, little by little, in such tiny mouth, tiny beak. So small, like the dirt that we can get in the nails, if we scratch like that we can get in the nails, like that, they collect little by little, then they build up the nest. Even the dirt, not just ordinary dirt, even the dirt they pick up, the concrete, the dirt which can become strong, like kind of cement, which stays very strong, it holds there strongly. Like this, collect little by little, then they make big. Then after suffering that much then they lay egg inside, then they keep warm, then they go to find food. Also, sometimes they make nest by collecting each grass, by collecting each tiny sort of hairs, grass, they make. So like this, they suffered so much taking care of us, when we were born in previous lifetime, the present mother being bird and then when we were born from her, she has been kind like this, many ways. She has been kind like this numberless times. Like this you think similarly with other animals, just with continuity of the present mother.

Just like this, same thing you think similarly to the father, make similar checking meditation on the father. Then checking meditation on the father, after that to the friend, then stranger, then enemy, then rest of all sentient beings ,you similarly doing checking meditation, like this, gradually, with all the sentient beings. “They all have been my mother with human body numberless times, kind like this numberless times. Then with each samsaric, each of those different rebirths, by taking different bodies, they have been kind, they have been my mother and have been kind numberless times.” Like this one can check up. If one understands the basic, how to check up, if one understands the basic meditation of this, the essence, how to make checking meditation, then there’s many different ways to make, not necessarily as I explained exactly like this, but can be little bit different ways of checking, making the checking meditation. Then whatever way one does, doesn’t matter, if one knows the basic, the essence, how to make similarly with other rebirths, like this. The first thing,though, try to feel the mother and try feel the kindness, the first thing. It’s very good with the human, checking with human body being mother, first this is very good, this is stronger than, for our mind it is stronger, more effective, stronger to our mind than the animals, than checking meditation on our previous animal body being mother, being kind. So, first checking on human then secondly others, like this. In that way, it is very good, it is very effective for the mind.

Also you can do, another way of checking, first of all think about the present mother, then gradually all sentient beings, first of all checking meditation how they have been my mother with human body numberless times and kind, like this, first of all check on that. Then secondly, on different animals, like that also can do. That doesn’t matter, whichever way is more effective, the person, depending on individual mind, whatever way of checking which is more powerful and more effective, easier, that can be done.

However, the whole point is to try to feel, get the feeling all the sentient beings have been mother, to get the feeling that all the sentient beings have been mother numberless times, then have been kind, feeling like this. Any time, when we see any creature, any tiny creature or big, fearful animals, or even the bugs biting, even the lice, bugs biting on our body, crawling on our body, even we see this, having the feeling, “This is my mother,” like we see the present mother. Whenever we see present mother, even though she is in group of many hundreds of people, when we see her in among these we think, “Oh, this is my mother!” with a kind of very strong feeling and also very strong feeling of her being kind, at the same time. Just like this, that is just, we don’t remember previous, just only the present things. Deeper than that, through this meditation, as the person actualize this meditation, deeper than that, deeper the feeling of the mother and the kindness is deeper than that, much stronger than that, what usually the ordinary person, the generous person, generous child, as they feel the mother and the kindness, much stronger than that. So, when the realization of this meditation is achieved, then whenever, even snakes, leeches or any insect that, leeches drinking the blood, anything that we see, just like we see the mother, stronger than that, “This is my mother,” intuitively recognize, “This is my mother,” and have an incredible feeling of kindness, strong feeling of kindness, being mother. Also at the same time, because of knowing the mother and the strong feeling of the mother and the kindness, so because of that, also the person see those animals, even though it is fearful looking, those times sees in beauty.

Also when there’s such incredible feeling like this all the time, intuitive, there will be no need for checking meditation, no need for checking how this one has been my mother, how this one has been kind, no need for checking meditation. Like, when we see our mother we don’t need checking meditation to get that feeling, just by seeing, by hearing the her voice we know, “Oh this is my mother!” Just by hearing the sound, by smelling—I’m joking, smelling! Just like this, a strong feeling arises with any sentient being that we see. Atisha, when Atisha sees the insect, the ant, how Atisha feels with the ant, when he sees the ant is like that feeling, of mother. It is said in the teachings that realization of this meditation should be like this, like Atisha feels with the insect, ant.

When we see our mother, every one of our perfections, every one of our enjoyments, everything, somehow, depends on her. Everything is received from her, everything depends on her. Kind of heavy feeling, everything came from her, so kind of heavy feeling, like that. The same feeling comes with even the insect, after receiving realization of this meditation, same thing, same feeling comes.

Like this, just briefly on the checking meditation on the mother and the kindness, remembering the kindness. Then repaying the kindness. However, the purpose is just a little bit defining, describing these. Then, for people who make retreat of course it will be useful to make the checking meditation on these things, to remember, there is no question. However, even if there’s no time at present, now, this time, to make retreat, if there’s a plan in the mind, if there’s plan to do after some time, then having some project, some plan in the mind to do after some time, having plan definitely to make retreat on lam-rim—even if you don’t meditate, whether it’s called retreat or not retreat, it is possible that some people can’t meditate all day, even can’t meditate every day, every day having meditation session but can still think, “I can’t meditate all day, but I will make retreat when there’s time, I will spend more time, kind of month, like this, I will make retreat—thinking like this, planning like this, that is also very good. At least thinking like this, that person who doesn’t think precisely about retreat, but he wants, but he has project, he has plan, “Now I am going to, on these meditations, I am going to meditate every day as much as possible by making a session, every morning, at least one session, one hour or half-hour, something. I’m going to spend, I’m going to make continual meditation on lam-rim,” thinking like this, the person who has such this plan is extremely good. Even though he doesn’t have plans, specific retreat or things like this, since he has plan to make meditation on this, until the death-time, the whole life, having plan to work on this. However, people may have different plans like this. So just little bit trying to amplify, hoping that it may be beneficial, if there’s plan like this to practice this meditation it is for that purpose. However, what I mean is, if it is done like this, also it makes it meaningful. It has been worthwhile that I try to explain.

[Pipi break]

REPAYING THE KINDNESS OF ALL MOTHER SENTIENT BEINGS
Then repaying the kindness. As it is said in Nagarjuna’s teaching, “Being crazy by the delusion, being blind with ignorance, on the path to many precipices,” as I described before, when explaining another quotation, the precipice, falling down the precipice, making each step to that, to the path—where? To the path to the precipice. As it is said by Nagarjuna in the teachings, I think teachings called Lob-ding, “Just like the mother whose eye is blind and having no leader, no guide, whose mind has gone out, being crazy. As the mother walks each step, each step she makes, closer, closer to the precipice which is very deep,” not just small place where she can fell down and get up easily, not like this—very deep. Just like this example, the mother sentient beings, each mother sentient being, each time they move, they act with speech, body and mind, each time they act, like the blind mother stepping each time closer, she steps towards the precipice, like this, the mother sentient beings, each time, even a small movement, even they make small movement, even they make little bit action with speech, body, mind, everything what they do, what work they do, the small actions, the small movements that they do, all these brings opposite result. All these brings result opposite to what they expected, what they wished. What they wish is happiness all the time, the purpose of working, even making little bit movement or action with the body, speech, mind, even though it is done with expectation of happiness, to receive happiness from that, all these actions that are done, even small actions, are actions which only brings suffering results, completely opposite to their wishes.

The blind mother, where she makes each step towards, that is the precipice, the deep precipice. Like this, the mother sentient beings, each time they move, they act with speech, body, mind, they create the cause to be born in suffering lower realm, which is like the precipice. Their mind being crazy with delusions, being completely under the control of delusions, completely ignorant, not having the wisdom-eye to discriminate, not having the wisdom-eye which recognizes what is practiced and what is avoided, what is wrong and what is right. Not having the wisdom-eye to recognize like this. Also, not recognizing the practice, what is right and what is wrong, what is to practice and what is to avoid, that means not recognizing what is the cause of happiness and what is the cause of suffering, not recognizing this. Also, being devoid of the guide, the leader, the teacher, the virtuous friend. Like this, the mother sentient beings are like this, continuously suffering like this.

“In the present time, in this present time, compared to most of the sentient beings, I am more fortunate, I am more lucky, having received the perfect human rebirth, having met the teachings, having met the leader leading in the path to enlightenment, and also having little bit Dharma wisdom, the Dharma wisdom-eye which can discriminate what is to practice and what is to avoid.”

As Nagarjuna said in the teachings, “While seeing the sentient beings drowned in the samsaric ocean, the ocean which is like samsara, just for short time, just by the reason not recognizing mother, renouncing them, just by the reason not recognizing that they have been mother,
renouncing them and trying to escape only oneself, that is shameless.”

Then only trying to make myself be happy, trying to escape from samsara, that is very selfish, shameless, since the mother sentient beings, who have been that much incredibly kind, they are suffering like this, exactly like the blind mother, that example, like that, for instance like the blind mother who is in such a danger with each step she makes towards the precipice, not having a leader and mind also being crazy, like this.Whom the mother should expect to receive help from is the son. Whom the son should help, that is the mother, the suffering mother like this. Then how cruel it is, how selfish, how cruel it is that child, while mother is in such danger like this, blind and not having leader and each step making closer to the precipice, and child is just dancing, singing there, and watching to the mother, how she is suffering, and only concerned of himself, how to enjoy himself. Completely renounced the mother, just watching the mother suffering like this, while singing, watching the mother how she is falling down, things like this, like this example. It is a very upsetting example. It is exactly the same thing with us, only oneself, all the time only oneself trying to be happy, renouncing the mother sentient beings, not caring about their sufferings. Instead of trying to release even one mother from samsara, but trying only oneself to escape from samsara, that is very shameless, very cruel. “Who the mother, the suffering, kind mother sentient beings, whom they should expect to receive help from is the son, me. And whom I should help is the mother. So I must repay the kindness to all those mother sentient beings.”

Then, even the happiness, what to repay is the happiness, because they are suffering. What to repay, what they need, is happiness. What they are missing is happiness. So any of the samsaric happiness, any of the samsaric perfections, happiness, that is nothing new for them, they have had this experience numberless times. It didn’t help them to be released from samsara, from the suffering. “I must repay them, cause them to receive the highest happiness, enlightenment, and to release them from all the sufferings.”

EQUALIZING ONESELF WITH OTHERS 
At this time I will explain the other thought-training of the other bodhicitta, joining with this seven Mahayana technique. The other practice, the other technique, the other process of meditation which leads to bodhicitta, if one is going to practice the two techniques together, then this is the equalizing, equalizing one and other. Then, also, like this, you can think, can join to this meditation like this: “There’s no reason for me to think, it is wrong for me to think, thinking that I am more important than other sentient beings. Because of thinking this, thinking that my happiness is more important than other sentient beings’ happiness and then not caring of other sentient beings’ suffering, then, in order to obtain one’s own happiness, there is causing suffering to others. This is completely wrong. There’s no one single reason that I am more important than other sentient beings, no one single reason. If I check up, by the delusions I have been doing like this. I have been thinking, believing like this and doing like this, letting others to suffer for my own happiness. Actually, this is completely mistake. There’s no one single reason that I am more important than other sentient beings, there’s no one single reason why my happiness is more important than others, why my wish, my desire, is more important; why what I want, my desire, my happiness, no reason why it is more important than otherss desires. There’s no one single reason to prove this. My desiring happiness is more important than other beings wishing happiness? There’s no one single reason. It is exactly equal, myself and other sentient beings are exactly equal. There’s not one single reason, myself and other sentient beings are exactly equal in desiring happiness and not desiring suffering. Even in one’s dreams, it is same. Not one single reason that, in regards to having similar desire, it is same—having desire for happiness, not having desire for suffering, even in dream, it is same thing. And there’s not one single reason why my desire is more important than others.” If they’re purposely choosing to suffer, if they’re wishing to suffer, that’s something else. The desire is same thing.

Then, as it is said in the Guru Puja, the tantric text, “Not desiring even a small suffering, not having satisfaction in happiness, never having satisfaction in happiness, no difference between myself and others. Please grant me blessings to feel happiness for the happiness of others.”

What it is saying is, even, no difference, even in the dream, not desiring even a small suffering, no difference between oneself and others, and not having satisfaction in happiness, never having satisfaction in happiness is same thing, exactly same thing. Therefore, also as oneself desires happiness, as oneself wants happiness, then also other beings also should have happiness, should not cause suffering. Therefore, please grant me blessings to generate, to feel happiness, to hear or to see other beings, other mother sentient beings’ happiness. To not feel jealous when other sentient beings are happy, enjoying something. To not feel jealousy, pride and like this. To feel happiness for other sentient beings’ happiness.

So I think I stop here. So rest of the subject, in the future life, in the next existence of the world.

[Ge wa di… Dedication prayers]

LECTURE 34:  December 6, 1975 (evening)

EQUALIZING ONESELF WITH OTHERS (CONTINUED)
Equalizing, we stopped at the outline of equalizing one and other. That’s also very useful, understanding this meditation, it is very useful. Sometimes when there’s problem, when you find problem with people, with companions, not only with people, even with other living beings, non-human beings, when you find problems, then it is very good to do. When an angry and jealous mind arises toward other people, when oneself doesn’t want other people to have such possessions or such friends, the mind being jealous or mind being angry, things like that, good to do. Then also, when you are jealous of other person having good knowledge, having higher knowledge, having good life, and the mind feeling jealous or generating anger, such as this time, very good to remember this meditation, equalizing one and others. As I explained yesterday, equalizing is thinking other is equal in desiring happiness, not desiring suffering, trying to feel the same desire. So when you feel that they are the same desires, the other is having the same desire, “As I want, also he wants the same thing, because he also desires happiness,” when you remember, when you think like this, when you reason like this, then mind-problems such as jealousy and anger, those things, automatically, go out, are removed. When you see this reason, when you reason like this, the negative mind automatically loses. Equalizing one and other.

Before exchanging oneself for the others, to be able to do this, to exchange oneself for others, depends on, first of all, how much the person is brave, how much the person’s mind is strong. To change oneself for others, that depends on how much the person, practitioner, knows, how much deep understanding of shortcomings of self-cherishing thought and understanding of the benefits of cherishing others he has. A deep understanding of the shortcomings of self-cherishing thought is very important, that is very important, how dangerous that thought is, that is very important.

THE SHORTCOMINGS OF THE SELF-CHERISHING THOUGHT
Then, just briefly explaining the shortcomings of the self-cherishing thought. As it is said in the Guru Puja prayer, called Lama Chöpa, “Please grant me blessings to see...” The Tibetan term is chong-nä. Chong-nä is a kind of disease which lasts for a long time, chronic, and person can’t eat, can’t walk or work and person is skinny and so many problems. It is kind of rooted inside, the disease is kind of very difficult to cure, very much rooted inside, which cannot be cured right away, which lasts for a long time, chronic. “Please grant me blessings to to see that the chronic disease of cherishing oneself more than others is the cause of generating all the undesirable sufferings.” Then the second verse, le-län dä-la kön-du... “Putting all the faults, pointing all the faults on the self-cherishing thought and being spiteful of the self-cherishing thought...” However, it means the shortcomings—first I will finish the verse, “...and to be able to destroy the great devil, the self-cherishing thought.” The first thing is “by seeing like this.” Then second is, “To be able to destroy the great devil, the self-cherishing thought.”

Then, as the very highly realized, the Tibetan lama, the lineage of the Panchen Lama, who wrote this Guru Puja, as he said in the prayer, “the self-cherishing thought is like the chronic disease, which exists within the minds of the persons, the sentient beings, by being deeply rooted in the mind. Then it obliges the person to suffer so much. All the sufferings, all the shortcomings, what the person experiences, what the sentient beings experience, all this rises from the self-cherishing thought. So, as all the sufferings that the sentient beings experience rises from the self-cherishing thought, the reason why the sentient beings can’t get rid of the self-cherishing thought, can’t get free from the self-cherishing thought, that is because, not realizing all the suffering is caused by the self-cherishing, not realizing, not recognizing this, instead of getting rid of the self-cherishing thought, the devil, one takes care of it, taking best care as possible. So therefore the sentient beings can’t escape from the suffering.”

So, to be able to free from the cause of all the undesirable sufferings, the sentient beings should recognize all the sufferings are coming from this, and should point out, everything that the sentient beings experience, the sufferings, the problems, whatever they experience, by recognizing it came from the self-cherishing thought, should point out it’s the fault of the self-cherishing thought. Any time there’s a problem that arises, physical problem, mind problem, any kind of problem arises, every time, it is necessary to point out that all these are fault of the self-cherishing thought. That’s what it means, le-län dä.

For instance, if a thief has stolen all our clothing, food and everything, every problem, feeling cold and starving, whatever problem that we experience, everything we point out is the fault of the thief. Every time we point out to the head of the thief, “This problem feeling cold, this is all fault of the thief, because his stealing my things.” Every time, whatever problem experienced, point out to the head of the thief. Like this, that is the wrong way to point out, that is the wrong way, out to thieves or any kind of outer enemy. Usually we point out to the other person’s head, to parents, even if a person can’t mediate still point out to other person’s head, “Oh, he’s distracting me, he’s making noise,” all these things. All the time pointing out. If there’s dog barking, then we point out to the dog. If there’s distraction in meditation or causing problem in the mind, like this, this is the way we point out for all the faults, example like this. But this example, that is just to have idea, but, the example itself, what we usually do is the wrong way of pointing, wrong way of thinking the cause of suffering. By understanding that what we usually do, pointing out to other people’s head, other being’s head, for our problems, the sufferings that we experience, we can then recognize this is a mistake. They are not the cause of suffering. The real cause of all my problems is the self-cherishing thought. Realizing this, it is necessary to point out inside, in your mind. Then this devil that which is existing within one’s mind, necessary to point out each problem, every time. Whatever happens, every time necessary to point out, it is the fault of the self-cherishing thought. That’s what it means, le-län dä-la kön-du, le-län dä-la, the meaning is like this. These are from thought-training teachings.

Kön-du zung is like we are spiteful of enemies who disturb us. We are spiteful, “Oh, he did me like this, he gave me harm like this, like this.” We collect, we keep in the heart, many times, we keep in the heart. Then, in the depth of the heart, also angry, anger. At the same time keeping, collecting all his harmful actions in the heart, at the same time kind of angry to the person. Like that, that is wrong way, but to do like this instead with the self-cherishing thought is very good. Instead of collecting what other people give as harm, collecting, keeping in the mind, instead of keeping like this, collecting all the problems that are caused by the self-cherishing thought. Each time, in our life, in one day, even in one day, starting from morning until night, then year, then the life, how much, we then collect! “The self-cherishing thought did me like this, that time he did me like that. The evil self-cherishing thought he did me like this, he made me to starve, he made me to feel hungry, he made me to not meditate.” But you cannot think, similarly, “Oh, self-cherishing thought made me to take ordination, because by taking ordination starving, feeling hungry,” cannot say self-cherishing thought made me to take ordination. The feeling of being hungry during the ordination time is by the self-cherishing thought, but not by the ordination. However, each single problem that one experience collects in one’s heart, then like this, then, instead of mind being spiteful toward others, to other sentient beings, be spiteful to the self-cherishing thought. Like we think with other person, “Oh, he did me like this, he did me like this, last year, this year, in such a place… Definitely, at one place, at one time, I will definitely kill him, I will definitely destroy him, definitely,” you have kind of completely decided in the depth of your heart, completely decided somehow to shoot, or with friends attack, or something. Completely decided, wishing, such incredible strong wish in the depth of your heart to really make him not exist. Even the name of the person, to really make not existing. Even name. Just like this, like we see other person, exactly the same thing is necessary to feel toward self-cherishing thought.

Then the last one, “to be able to destroy the great devil, the self-cherishing thought, please grant me blessings.” Actually, from this, we can clearly understand how to make meditation on the shortcomings of the self-cherishing thought. This Guru Puja prayer is so clear, incredible, so clear, very clear.

As it is said in the Guru Puja prayer, “The chronic disease, cherishing more oneself,” more explaining, more making explanation on this, the shortcomings. This devil, the self-cherishing thought, from the beginningless previous lifetime until now, this has not let me receive enlightenment, or even to receive the arhat stage. This devil, the self-cherishing thought, also did not let me to receive the higher beings’ path. Also, the self-cherishing thought did not let me to receive at least the fundamental realizations, the fully renounced mind of samsara, the bodhicitta and the wisdom realizing shunyata. So far it has not let me receive any of these realizations. Instead, besides not letting me to receive these realizations, the self-cherishing thought has been obliging me to suffer in the narak sufferings numberless times. Then same thing in the preta realms, it has been obliging me to suffer in the preta realm numberless times. Also in animal realm numberless times. Even the Buddha’s omniscient mind cannot count how much the self-cherishing thought has been obliging me to suffer in these realms. Then like this, the self-cherishing thought has been obliging me to suffer numberless times in the sura realm asura realm, then also the human realm.

So I’m not going to describe the sufferings of each realm, because again it takes much time. It is explained in the Meditation Course book about the sufferings of the suras, asuras, then the human sufferings, the eight sufferings, also those three sufferings, they are like this, roughly, if you want to think of. Then if there’s no outline for the sufferings, if there’s not some kind of outline then it’s difficult to think. If you want to meditate, then it’s difficult to see clearly those sufferings in a short time.

When you are making the checking meditation on the shortcomings of the self-cherishing thought, then that time, you go precisely with each. You try to remember, like the eight hot sufferings, eight cold sufferings, the other four different types of hot sufferings, then preta, different sufferings, animals, different sufferings; suras, asuras they have different sufferings, all as it is described in the teachings. Like this, when you make checking meditation, you remember all the specific things. Like this, very effective, very, very effective for the mind. Like this it is necessary to check up. Otherwise, the self-cherishing thought is, like this, if you don’t deeply check up the details, if you don’t check up, then you cannot see that it is the real devil, or it is the real enemy. You can’t see, you can’t feel it, even though you may say it, even though you say the words, you may not feel, your heart doesn’t feel it. Your heart is taking care of the self-cherishing thought but it happens like this.

Then, this is only talking about thinking of the past, how the self-cherishing thought has been causing me, disturbing me, obliging me to experience samsaric suffering. Just like this, also use in the present time, the self-cherishing thoughtat this moment is not allowing me receive enlightenment, arhat stage, higher paths, even the fundamental realizations.

Besides the self-cherishing thought disturbing me from receive the realizations, it disturbs, it has been disturbing me from even receiving the samsaric pleasure, from receiving the samsaric perfections and pleasures. How to check this, then, that is like this. Logically if you want to check up, if you want to feel it, then like this checking is very good. For instance, I’m not going to describe the result of the ten immoralities, the result of each karma, however, generally like this, each negative karma has four results, all this result is not pleasure, it is suffering, as explained before when you made meditation before on the karma. I’m just saying this is very important, this part is extremely important.

There’s no answer in the West if you ask this question, about this the experience. General people who don’t know karma, who don’t know lam-rim teachings, who don’t know karma, they don’t have the answer. A person who’s experiencing the sinful result, not observing their mind, so the second result, third result, experiencing result according to similar cause and creating result again similar to the cause, those two and the possessed cause, those three which are experienced in the human realm, which are experienced also human realm, asura, sura realm—that person, if he is questioned about this suffering, about that suffering which human, upper beings experience, if he is questioned, who doesn’t know karma, then no matter how much he has learned science and this and that, if questioned, there is no logical answer. This is important, very, very important. If you have understanding of this, every time if you are feeling like this, it has four result. Each time the negative karma is created, then your mind also needs to feel, “Negative karma, oh I am creating negative karma.” It doesn’t become just words. Besides words, there is a feeling in the heart. Heart is kind of, you feel heavy, kind of heavy, like pot having water inside. Otherwise, if you don’t know these things, karma and these things, then like pot which doesn’t have water inside, nothing inside, very light, like that, it just becomes words. However, then like this, when you make checking meditation remember, when you make checking meditation on the shortcomings of the self-cherishing thought in the present time, how it disturbs even from receiving the samsaric perfections, samsaric pleasures. The clear way, most logical way how to see clearly, that is remember the four results of each of the ten immoralities. Then think, like this, also each negative karma has result like this, which has to be experienced in the human realm, in the upper realm.

For instance, just example, to have just clear idea, just for killing, just one example how to check up, how the present problem, one result is such as being in such a place where there’s full of life danger, always there’s life danger, where there’s much life danger, being in such a place, always have to worry for the life, always have to worry, “Oh, he may kill me,” like in a certain place where’s there’s much fighting, many violent things happening, danger to the life. The present problems, like this, from previous karma from killing. Also, my, without control, harming other beings, uncontrollable killing of other beings, things like this. From that there’s also, in this life, having shortage of life, having danger that someone will kill. These are the fault of the self-cherishing thought. How is it fault of the self-cherishing thought? In the previous lifetime, with the self-cherishing thought, such as the wrong conception fully holding the I, the self-cherishing thought obliges me to create karma, to create the negative karma killing others. So because of that, I experience this result. Even I am born without experiencing the sinful result of having to be experienced in the lower realms, besides that, because of that karma, I have to experience the suffering of the possessed cause, similar to the cause in experience. The suffering result, possessed cause, creating the result similar to the cause and experiencing the result similar to the cause, that is the danger to be killed by other person and, also, danger of killing, creating similar karma again, killing others, which is creating karma, again, creating result similar to the cause in behavior. You killed other beings before, and because of that karma, habitual karma, again in this life, even you are born as human again you create again, you kill other beings, continue like this.

So this is just to give you idea how to check logically about the suffering of the present life, how it is a fault of the self-cherishing thought. You see, these results we don’t want. These three results that we experience in the human realm we don’t want. We want the opposite, to not be killed. We want the opposite, to not be in such violent place. We want the opposite, but no choice, have to be there. So that is how the samsaric pleasures, samsaric perfections, that’s how the self-cherishing thought disturbs from receiving the samsaric perfections, samsaric pleasures.

Like this, you think similarly, I am talking about, this is just example of killing, the karma, like this you check similarly with each of the other, the rest of the nine immoral actions. Also, if you understand, as it is in the book, if you keep in the mind, whenever the problem comes in the life, whatever problem you experience, all of a sudden you know, “Oh, that is because in previous lifetime I created this karma, and that is why I’m experiencing this result, the experiencing result similar to the cause.” Like this you can recognize, automatically, without choice, if you’re going to do something, you are harming to some other being or you are telling lie, or you are doing something, then all of a sudden you can realize, “Oh, this is result, creating result similar to the cause, the previous karma.” Like this, you can recognize how it is caused by self cherishing thought, can easily figure it out like this. So like this you check similarly.

I think I will stop here, because Lama, he said to do one hour, don’t torture oneself. Anyway, I would like to finish the subject somehow at this time, but I don’t think even if I spend three hours I can finish! So anyway, Lama, he said to continue tomorrow after one o’clock, so as he gives chance, I will continue. Also this, through this prayer, this prayer that you have said, again that takes time, so it’s impossible. Unless you are going to sleep for a long time and have a long dream.

Then, if there’s people leaving tomorrow before that, if you have received this paper, this translation, the meditation, even though you didn’t receive the commentary—is there people leaving tomorrow or not?

I could have done very short, it can be done, no problem to be short, no problem, just only outline, if I mention just the outline it can include everything, it can finish within five minutes, but that is difficult to meditate on. If you, while in some other place, there are many other teachers if you want to receive the teaching on this, explanation on this, then if you try, someone who is capable, who understands thought-training, who has understanding of thought-training teaching, then if you ask to give explanation, it’s very good. If you have the wish.

Then, in the Mahayana meditation, the process of meditation which leads to bodhicitta if you want to practice this, between those meditations, good thing is, whether you are practicing the seven Mahayana techniques or not, if you’re practicing the seven Mahayana techniques, this special technique which leads bodhicitta, this together, as I explained, first of all, all beings are mother sentient being, then second kindness, remembering kindness, third time repaying kindness, then after that equalizing one and other, then shortcomings of the self-cherishing thought and benefits of cherishing others. Those benefits are as I already repeated many times during the ordination time, in the morning, the motivation, besides the infinite knowledge, the enlightenment, all the realizations of the path, besides that, all the samsaric perfections, happiness, everything comes from this, from bodhicitta, cherishing others more than oneself, from this. There’s no one single happiness that we experience that has not come from that, nothing. Then, because of this, because cherishing others has only benefit and taking care of oneself is only cause of suffering, so therefore we change, therefore we cast off, we get rid of the self-cherishing thought. Instead of that, we replace with the mind cherishing others, like this.

Then also, usually, another way of talking like this, usually, from beginningless previous lifetimes until now we have been taking ourselves in most care, renouncing others. Other beings, thinking “others” then renouncing, like this. That doesn’t have one single benefit, only suffering, only bringing suffering, only causing harm, so therefore, then, instead of doing like this, now we change. Now, this is our old personality from beginningless lifetimes until now, old personality. Now we change this. The thought training, the essence of bodhicitta, is this, the essence of thought-training. Now change, completely change. Think that the others’ possessions, body, then others’ suffering, others’ happiness, as one’s own. Then take others in most care and renounce oneself, renouncing oneself as we previously renounced others, take others in most care as we previously took for oneself. That practice has to come through understanding, and that understanding, your will to do like this, to practice, will to practice like this, capability of practicing this has to come through the understanding of the benefits of cherishing others and the shortcomings of the self-cherishing thought. Then this is exchanging oneself for others.

However, the whole personality exchanging, like this, completely opposite. As now we take ourselves in most care, like this, instead of taking others in most care, and renouncing oneself instead of renouncing others, like this, completely exchanging, this is clear, we are exchanging. But not thinking, “She is me,” like many young people talk, “Everything is oneness.” Many young people talk like this, many young people know this from the Hindu books, all kinds of books. “Everything is oneness, you are me, I am you,” like this, everything making kind of, making soup, not in that way. “Your possession is mine, then there’s nothing to steal, because everything is me then there’s no stealing, no action of karma, then everything what belongs to them is mine,” and you can have everything. Not like that, that is little bit far out. Not like this. Anyway, you see, exchanging oneself for others like this. Then after that, then you can do this meditation. If you want to practice meditation, relating with this process of meditation which leads to bodhicitta, then you can practice this after that, exchanging oneself for others.

The visualization is Avalokiteshvara. I just repeat, make the visualization, Avalokiteshvara, the practice is loving compassion, the bodhicitta, the thought, so it is related to purification with this. The purpose of visualizing this, making visualization of Avalokiteshvara, that is, Avalokiteshvara himself is the Compassionate Buddha, the purpose is it’s very quick to receive the realization of bodhicitta, to develop compassion and love. So, therefore, by visualizing this, and if you pray, if you make purification like this, then in that way, it is due to Avalokiteshvara’s unbearable compassion of the suffering, your samsaric suffering, and then your wish to practice to receive bodhicitta and to become Avalokiteshvara for the benefit of sentient beings, by becoming Avalokiteshvara. However, there are these two things, from your side having like this, and from Avalokiteshvara having unbearable compassion your samsaric suffering. Then you repeat and make purification, you repeat each verse and purify, purification is explained here, what to think.

Then after, there is one thing not cleared up, that is, after Avalokiteshvara comes down at your heart, lotus and everything, Guru Avalokiteshvara at the heart, at the heart Guru Avalokiteshvara is there, radiating, then, that burns, again that is destroying all the obscurations, your whole body become light, like formation of light, then absorb into Avalokiteshvara, absorb Avalokiteshvara into your center until you become oneness with Avalokiteshvara. Already, when the Avalokiteshvara comes down, sitting at the heart, at that time, actually what you’re supposed to think is oneness with your mind. Then, melt in light, your body becomes light, by rays coming from Avalokiteshvara, purifying all the obscurations, then becoming light, then the light absorbs to Avalokiteshvara, whole your body absorbs to Avalokiteshvara, then become completely oneness, complete manifestation of Avalokiteshvara. Like this, then you purify sentient beings by sending light rays, then after this you make dedication. Dedication is also explained here.

Just for people who are leaving, like this, and especially if you want to practice, it’s very good to learn by heart all these verses. It’s very good, the most important time to use this practice, to meditate, most important time to meditate, to practice, to use, that is—you can visualize, even though you become Avalokiteshvara, again you can visualize Avalokiteshvara always seated on your head, all the time, even you are typing, even you’re in the toilet, wherever you are. Then, mind being conscious of this and whenever there’s a problem with people coming, problem coming, then remember this teaching and think, “Avalokiteshvara is here,” checking, he is watching you, then remember this teaching, and make purification, and at the same time, whatever anger or any problem comes, not necessary to put your hand like this, mouth like this, not necessary, you just, whether you are standing or whatever you are doing, then you just, in the mind think, remember this teaching. Whatever problem arises, relating to whatever problem, then make purification according to this, whatever you can understand, relating to whatever problem. Then, you make purification, then again Avalokiteshvara comes down, seated at the heart. I’m sure the anger somehow has to be less, somehow, it must shake somehow the delusion.

Generally, that is how to do if you want to practice, I’m just giving suggestions. My main wish, by printing this, by putting the visualization, of course this is my most interesting practice, but what the main wish is that if you practice, my main wish is, like this in the daily life, to use it right away [snaps fingers]. Like the medicine if you get fever, like the tourist, like the mountaineer people, they always take medicine with them, whenever they get fever, headache, with breath problem, they take medicine. Like this, my main wish is that to use it right away, whenever the mind-problem comes. That is the main thing. Whether, if you do every morning or something, whenever the session, you make meditation on bodhicitta like this, remember the mother’s kindness, all this, do this meditation, and then you do this, make purification, if you do that, it is very good, it’s helpful the rest of the day, it’s very good to train the mind in the bodhicitta. But, even if you don’t have time like this, during the day, daytime, all the time, have the mind kind of conscious in this thought, in this practice, that is the main thing. That way, it helps to stop karma, to observe karma, each time you train your mind in the bodhicitta.

Then, continuously pray to actualize, to be able to actualize at least bodhicitta in this lifetime. Mind being hungry for bodhicitta, that doesn’t matter. How much you are hungry, it’s very good, it’s worthwhile. You should make your mind more hungry for bodhicitta. And pray like this to Guru Avalokiteshvara, if you pray like this, if you have wish, if you pray like this, continuously, definitely, even you don’t have time now to receive teaching like this, then definitely there will be time, you will find the time, things will happen, by the grace of Triple Gem or Buddha. Also due to the pure mind, due to the power of your pure mind, wanting to benefit for other sentient beings like this, things can happen. That’s all.

[Ge wa di… Dedication prayers]

Again you have to make another mandala offering, another prayer. Anyway, like this, for instance today, just today, just even today, just in Nepal, just in this area, just even today, so many people dead. In this morning, in this afternoon, then even nighttime, there are so many people—also in India, also in the West, besides in the East. Today, on this earth, so many people, this morning dead, so many people this morning dead, while you were taking the ordination, while you were taking the refuge, morning time. Then, in afternoon time, while you were making puja, then lunch time, then in the afternoon. Then night time, how many people, there were many people dying. Today, the night time, many people dying, like this, they are dying, by all kinds of different conditions, not same conditions, by all kinds of different conditions. It is incredible, each person has different story. Even in the West. For instance, in newspaper, in New York how many people in a week, even you can see in newspaper. Then so many are not in newspaper. Today, just today like this, like this happened. Then tomorrow also like this, who are ready to die, but they don’t know, people themselves don’t know, no idea they are going to die tomorrow. They think they’re going to live a long time, they’re going to do this, do that, “I’m going to do this, this, then build this and this,” so many projects, in the life, for the family, like this. But actually, tomorrow morning some time, then finished. Then all of a sudden big shock. Then so much people crying, all of a sudden. Even though he was laughing before, talking, smiling, at the table. Then after a few minutes, everything changed completely, completely changed.

So therefore, like this, this is what’s happening now. Today, it’s not happened to us, today it’s not our turn. Today is not our turn, somehow, by lucky, by opportunity, due to previous good karma, not happened today. Today not happened, until this hour, until this hour. Like this is happening to the people, happening like this today, like this, one day, very soon, one day, unexpectedly, without any idea, then [snaps fingers], like this coming, our turn. In one certain place, maybe outside or maybe at home, certain place, unexpectedly [snaps] like this comes. Or maybe, all of a sudden, even though you are so well now, you have big project, you are so well, all of a sudden [snaps] disease comes, like this. Then all of a sudden you shake—you are well, then all of a sudden, that disease comes. All of a sudden disease comes, cannot speak, can’t do anything, mind can’t act, body can’t act, speech cannot act, nothing. Body shaking, then can’t speak, people can’t speak, he can’t communicate, he can’t communicate what to do with the possessions, everything is there around, house, everything, people around there—can’t do anything. Then one hour, something, then even the breathing stops. Not sure, not sure, can happen like this. So, that’s why I emphasize bodhicitta. So therefore, we have to concentrate, we have to be careful in observing karma as much as possible. Observing karma as much as possible. That is for people who are not leaving and who are leaving, both.

Then that’s all. Thank you.

LECTURE 35:  December 7, 1975 (evening)

THE SHORTCOMINGS OF THE SELF-CHERISHING THOUGHT (CONTINUED)
Shantideva said in the teaching, “If one doesn’t exchange oneself for others, the enlightenment cannot be received. Even in the samsara there’s no pleasure, never mind in the future lives; leave the life which is beyond the present life. The servant is not working, the leader is not giving the expenses for working, the wages.”

The meaning, the work of this life, even the work of this life cannot be obtained. This is very useful to remember and to use when one makes checking meditation on the shortcomings of the self-cherishing thought. This is very powerful, it is very effective to the mind, because it is very clear what Shantideva said in the teaching, it’s very clear, it’s exact according to the worldly situation, how things are happening. It’s exact, it’s like taking picture, very exact. Nothing is, kind of, not true from the worldly life situation. That teaching is explaining, if one does not exchange, oneself and others not exchanged, if one does not exchange for other, then the ultimate work, receiving enlightenment, cannot be done, cannot be obtained. Even ultimate work, enlightenment cannot be obtained, it’s impossible. Because the bodhicitta, exchanging oneself for others, that is the principal cause of enlightenment, so without that it is impossible.

Then Shantideva is saying, even in the samsara, without talking about ultimate work, receiving enlightenment, even in the samsara, there’s no pleasure. He means that, while living in samsara, the self-cherishing thought disturbs even receiving the samsaric pleasure. For instance, how? Then he gives example. For instance, the servant not working for the master, for the leader, that is a problem to the master, or the leader. Servant not working for him, the leader, it disturbs his pleasure. In that way, if the servant doesn’t work then the master doesn’t get the pleasure. If he has a business, without servant he can’t make money, he can’t make profit, he can’t have that samsaric pleasure. So in that way he suffers.

So, example in the present world, example like this, such as servant not working, servant cheating, stealing the master, the owner’s things, all the time stealing, causing much trouble to the leader, to the owner. There are many things like this, people who have factories and who have many people working under, and all the time there is problem having strike, the lower people, workers, they make strike instead of working, and the top people, the capitalists or whatever you call, the top people who receive the profit, they suffer, they don’t get samsaric pleasure. In that way they suffer. Like this everywhere, pilots, in trains, people who drive trains and cars, many, many things.

This suffering, that is the problem of the leaders, the owners, by the servant not working, they are not receiving the samsaric pleasure. What Shantideva is saying is, their life problem is not really caused by the servant who makes strike and who doesn’t work. It’s not really caused by them. Their suffering, their not receiving samsaric pleasure, is caused by the devil, the self-cherishing thought that which is within their mind. That self-cherishing thought disturbs the owner, the leader, to receive his desire in samsaric pleasure.

Also, same way, the servants, the workers, also by the owners, the leaders not giving wages, that is problem of the workers, the servants. In that way the servants, the workers, they suffer, but for them the main cause of suffering, that is not the employers, the owners. What caused them suffering like this, their not receiving samsaric pleasure, that is by the devil, the self-cherishing thought, that which has been dwelling, living, in the minds of the workers, the servants.

Like this, so Shantideva is saying, even the work of this temporal life cannot be obtained. By what, what made one unable to obtain, accomplish, even the work of this temporal life? That is by the self-cherishing thought. This is very clear, just this quotation if you understand, very clear. Just one example, you can think similarly with every other problem in the world. It’s very good, just within this quotation it explains how it is great distraction to the ultimate work, to attain the ultimate work, or even to attain the temporal work, like this, it contains everything. Little bit, giving some example.

Then yesterday we were talking about the present problems. The self-cherishing thought, besides disturbing the receiving of realizations, not letting us to receive realizations not only in the lifetime, even in the present time it disturbs our receiving of samsaric pleasures, and it obliges us to suffer even in the present time.

As Shantideva explained, two tiny creatures fighting each other, that is also caused by self-cherishing thought. Then, group of animals fighting each other, that is also caused by self-cherishing thought. All the problems, any other problem, caused by self-cherishing thought. Same thing, two couples fighting, or just one person, by living alone, he has the suffering, the problems, physical and mental problems, also caused by self-cherishing thought. Meeting, experiencing all the undesirable sufferings—for instance, by meeting the undesirable object, enemies, things like this, undesirable object such as cold weather, feeling cold, and hot, much heat, again suffering, talking about just experiences of one person, even the possessions not lasting. First of all, difficult to get desirable possessions, objects, difficult. That is also caused by self-cherishing thought. Even the person has found, example, place, possessions, things like this, but then even the place, not having the chance to enjoy there a long time, not having chance. Also such as the possessions, even though the person got the desirable possessions it is not lasting long in the hand, it quickly gets broken, even the small things like this, small problems like this, easily get broken or get stolen. Many things happening. Then, government, the police confiscating, taking away, there are many problems. Like people, somebody in the West, who have the jewels, things like this, people come, police or other people, government, they come and confiscate, take away. However, all these small problems, even these are caused by self-cherishing thought.

Also, even the clothes. One has desirable clothes that one wants to buy, and one has suffering to not find, unable to buy. Such as this, small problems like this. Even the food, even one has certain specific desire to have certain food, but however the person has to eat that, he has to drink that, he has to live on that, even though he doesn’t like it, in regards to enjoyments like this. That is also, even the small problems, samsaric sufferings, caused by self-cherishing thought. Or other people are complaining about you, and even to hear the bad words, things like this, so painful to the heart, like a needle going in the heart, that is also caused by the self-cherishing thought. Even the little bugs biting, while you are sleeping comfortably, warm, sleeping comfortably in the sleeping bag, then again there’s bugs coming, biting, distracting to the sleep, your comfortable sleep. Even you are having comfortable, such happy dream, then distracting, these bugs distract, disturbing the dreams. Even a small thing like this, the undesirable suffering, even the small thing like this, all these are caused by self-cherishing thought.

Also, even in the dreams, there are many undesirable things, like in the dreams other people killing you, falling down from mountains, or from house, or from trees, like that, feeling very scared, even the heart is beating, even you wake up, heart is beating, things like this. Many things happening, even in the dream, undesirable things. Even the dream sufferings are also the result of previous karma created with the self-cherishing thought. That time all these are result of, all these are shortcomings of the self-cherishing thought.

Problems between two people, three people, problems always happening in the family, such as the two people, couple, problems all the time, disharmony, then the family, among the family, among the society, among the countries, all these are caused by the self-cherishing thought. Again, just I am talking about the past and present. With self-cherishing thought, in previous lifetimes, from beginningless previous lifetimes, we have created so much negative karma which has not been experienced yet, the suffering result which has not been experienced yet. And also continuously, even present time, with self-cherishing thought, we are creating negative karmas continuously. So there are many negative karmas, there are many suffering results of these karmas, of those present karmas, which have not been experienced yet by us There are so many negative karmas, like weapons used to destroy an enemy, an incredible arrangement of weapons, such an incredible arrangement has been made by the self-cherishing thought. The self-cherishing thought has already created karma and has arranged so many weapons there to result in suffering, to give suffering to us.

As we have followed the self-cherishing thought, as we still continue following the self-cherishing thought, creating negative karma—this self-cherishing thought, even in the future, besides distracting, besides not letting us to receive enlightenment, all the realizations, then, even continuously in the future the self-cherishing thought, as it continues in the future, will disturb our opportunity to have even samsaric pleasures. Instead of experiencing the samsaric pleasure in the future, we will have to experience samsaric suffering, without choice. We are born in the narak realm, preta realm, animal realm, human realm, sura realm, asura realm, any of these samsaric realms, and continuously we will have to suffer, again meeting similar problems which we have experienced before. If you know how to make checking meditation, on the past and present, then very easily we can easily figure it out about the future problems, which we will have to experience again.

Then as Shantideva said in the teachings, “In the samsara, whatever harmfulness is there, whatever fears and sufferings are there, all these rise from the thought clinging to the I.” For instance, if someone gives a kind of useless thing, very harmful, useless thing, then you think, “What should I do with this? No benefits at all, just only is the cause of harm” For instance, the way of seeing, the way of feeling is, like if someone is giving you poison, very harmful poison which could give you a wound simply by touching it, or give harm even by smelling, this very harmful poison someone is giving you, then, what we say is, “What will it do for me? It has no use.” This is the feeling, the reaction, feeling. Like this, “The great devil, what it would do to me?” After this quotation, “The great devil, what it would do for me?” we can add, “It’s no use, it doesn’t have any benefits, only just harming, no benefits at all. What should I do with it? It is of no use. It has been harming in the past, it is harming in the present time, it will continuously harm in the future,” like this.

So therefore, after checking this, we should feel like this, like a fire has gone in the heart, like a fire, like a hot red burning iron has gone in the heart. Like that, incredible feeling, such incredible feeling. The person can’t stand with it, even just to be with it, having it in the heart, living with the great devil, the self-cherishing thought, in the heart, even a minute, an hour, can’t stand with it without completely destroying it, can’t stand. Actually, the unbearable feeling, when one has the great devil self-cherishing thought living in the heart, actually the feeling wanting to get rid of it, wanting to destroy it, actually, this should be stronger than the burning fire, piece of iron, the very red iron that has become oneness with the fire. A feeling like that has gone in the heart. The unbearable feeling of wanting to destroy the self-cherishing thought should be stronger, much stronger than this, and wanting him to not exist should be much more stronger, billion, billions of times stronger than having hot red burning iron in the heart. Because why? The reason is the iron which is hot red, burning, the iron which is oneness with the fire, that is just, even if it is gone in the heart, it may just stop this life, it may burn the body, it may only stop this life. But that piece of iron, burning hot iron, has not been causing suffering from beginningless samsaric lifetime, and it doesn’t continuously oblige us to suffer in the present, and that wouldn’t cause us to continuously suffer in the future. That doesn’t do these things. So therefore I am saying, therefore, the feeling of it being unbearable, wanting to destroy the self-cherishing thought, and wanting to uproot the self-cherishing thought from the depth of the heart, like it is very harmful poisonous plant growing outside—a plant so poisonous that even the smell of the air going through the poisonous plant causes harm to other beings, and even by touching it you get a wound, like this. You want to destroy even the root. You want to take the root, because even the root of that plant you don’t want to exist in the ground. You want to take it off, completely make pure. Like that, strong, much stronger feeling than this, this example, this is necessary. Oh, then that has to come through meditation, checking meditation. According to what Shantideva explained, there are so many things, so many reasons, so many ways to make checking meditation on the shortcomings of the self-cherishing thought.

So after making checking meditation, after making this checking, after finishing, after you have made the checking meditation on self-cherishing thought, then make strong decision, very strong decision. Then, at least trying to feel, trying to see like this, like the poison or like the hot iron, that piece of iron that which is oneness with the fire, feeling as if it is in the body, in the heart. At least kind of that much strong feeling. Even the person who has that much strong feeling, unbearable feeling toward having the self-cherishing thought in the heart, even the person has that much feeling, that person can, when they have that much feeling, then that much he can easily control the negative mind. That much he has power to control the self-cherishing thought. That much he has the power for his actions to become similar to the bodhisattva’s actions, actions not being possessed by self-cherishing thought.

Also, if you want to know more about it, in regards to checking meditation on the self-cherishing thought, then also there’s Atisha’s guru’s teaching, written by Lama Dharmarakshita, The Wheel of Sharp Weapons. That one is very good. That one is fantastic. It has many details and it’s very, very good to, very good to face, to make elaborate. Sometimes if you want to make more, if you want to make more checking meditation on the shortcomings of self-cherishing thought, then you can also face the self-cherishing thought as an enemy, and you are fighting to the self-cherishing thought like you are in the war, like you are in the battle, in the war. Actually, meditation is to, meditation has to be war, war to the delusions. Actually meditation, when the person makes meditation, it should be making war to the delusions. Otherwise, person’s meditation doesn’t become remedy to the delusion.

THE BENEFITS OF CHERISHING OTHERS
Then, just briefly talking the benefits of the cherishing others more than oneself. What it means, making clear is instead of cherishing oneself, cherishing others. Cherishing others more than oneself, the benefits of cherishing others more than oneself. The benefits of this, just briefly talking. In regards to the benefits of the bodhicitta, cherishing others more than oneself, that part you can think, you can remember the ten benefits of the bodhicitta that I explained before. You can remember those. Remembering those, again bringing those to your mind.

Actually, the benefits of the bodhicitta are explained at a point in the teaching before introducing the process of meditation which leads to bodhicitta, the Mahayana meditation technique. This was of presenting is because if the benefits are not explained before the Mahayana technique, before the meditation on all mother sentient beings and exchanging oneself for others, if the benefits are not explained before those things, then, since the teaching is very profound, if the followers who listen to the teachings have a small heart they get frightened of the teaching and they can’t handle it. They cannot become the receptacle of the teaching. So therefore, in order to destroy this distraction, to have bigger heart, to strengthen the mind in order to practice this meditation, to strengthen mind, benefits taught first. Like the person who has small mind and firstly he thinks, “I can’t do it. I can’t do this or do that.” Like the person who is going to university and he has to learn many, many subjects and many, many things that he has to know, and then maybe he thinks, “I can’t do this. I’m very limited in knowledge in these things. I can’t do that. I can’t study.” He has a very small mind. Then the father, father or some other wise person, instructs him in the benefits of that. Firstly, father explains, “If you go to university, if you do this then you can get degree, then if you get degree then what you can do is you can make lots and lots of money.” Then if it’s a mother, then, “You can have lots of children, you can have lots of possessions. You can stay at the place wherever you like.” The father explains about the many benefits, and then the child, the son’s small heart, then it gets bigger and bigger and bigger, bigger. Then afterwards he can’t stand staying in the house, he wants to go, wants to go to university right away, as soon as possible to get the degree.

The purpose, I think, this is my own idea, the purpose is so it can be possible to do this meditation cherishing others more than oneself. In the teachings it is explained, the benefits of bodhicitta are explained before the actual technique, the process of meditation which leads to bodhicitta… Actually, the process of meditation which leads to bodhicitta is starting from mind beginningless, especially in our courses, generally from the either guru yoga, the guru meditation or the perfect human rebirth, all these are the process of meditation which leads to bodhicitta, but but more kind of direct, or more specific is starting from equilibrium in the Mahayana, the equalizing one and other and the knowing that all sentient beings have been mother. The meditations start from there. So what I’m saying is, those benefits, that is, the point where to use the understanding of those benefits, if you want to use, that’s very good to use when you meditate on, when you make checking meditation on the benefits of cherishing others more than oneself.

What I did not explain before, there are some parts, some important points which I did not explain in that time before. Then the last benefit of the bodhicitta is all the happiness, all the perfections, the bodhisattva becoming the holy object, the holy field, from where all the sentient beings’ happiness, all the sentient beings’ perfections, arise. This happiness includes ultimate happiness and temporal happiness. The way to think is like this.

Oh, little bit making clear how they make such benefit, for instance, how to amplify. Before just briefly explained just little bit. First of all like this, it’s good checking meditation. Generally, how the happiness came from sentient beings, that can be little bit easier, but first of all, from the bodhicitta, how the happiness, all the happiness come from bodhicitta, this is little bit, kind of block in the mind. Briefly talking like this. All the happiness, all one’s own happiness, first of all, all the past, all the past samsaric happiness, perfection, all my past happiness, perfections, everything, every single past samsaric happiness, every perfection, every single present, samsaric perfection and happiness. Everything, even small thing, like a piece of candy, when your throat gets feeling dried. Even, besides other pleasures, when we feel a little hot, even little bit small air passing through and feeling cool, even just small things like these. Even our mind feeling happiness even in a dream. Besides other bigger happiness, perfections, even such small samsaric pleasures, all these, are only the happiness of Dharma, coming through the meditation practice, through understanding Dharma. Through this the mind is feeling release, mind feeling, by recognizing the solution, by knowing the method, by knowing the techniques, the meditation techniques, how to solve the life problems, by recognizing the problem of the mind, feeling release, feeling peace. Even starting from the Dharma, which means, Dharma happiness, the happiness is that received through meditation. By solving problems through the meditation, all these pleasures, big and even small, they arise.

Also, all the future, as long as we’re in samsara, no matter how many eons, even an incredible number of eons, no matter how long we’re in samsara, all, each single samsaric perfection and happiness, also. First of all, all these are received from where? From where? From Dharma, from Dharma. How is that? By creating good karma, all this happiness came from where? The past, present and future happiness, perfections, samsaric perfection all this came from where? Came from Dharma. What is that? That is from creating good karma. In essence, “observing karma” and “Dharma” are the same thing.

Then, think, starting from the fully renounced mind, think this way, starting from the realization of the first meditation, perfect human rebirth, or the meditation on the guru practice, starting from realization, beginning realization, then fully renounced mind of samsara, bodhicitta, wisdom realizing shunyata, all the path, all the rest of the path up to enlightenment, including the final realization of enlightenment, all this path, all these realizations, then also the happiness, the peace, the happiness as you follow the path gradually, all this increases. All this happiness of the path, all the mental quiescence, the peace, all the knowledge, the knowledge of all this path, the most sublime happiness, the highest happiness of enlightenment, the infinite knowledge of enlightenment, all this, it is impossible to receive all these realizations, all this peace, all the most sublime happiness, infinite knowledge of enlightenment, impossible to receive without observing karma, without mind observing karma. Impossible. It’s all based on moral conduct, discipline, which means, another title, another name given, is observing karma. Moral conduct means observing karma, or practicing Dharma, all the same. So all these realizations and happiness are received from the Dharma. That is, from observing karma, or observing moral conduct, from Dharma. Without this fundamental Dharma, all these things are impossible, all this happiness, realizations, enlightenment, everything, is impossible.

So now where did this Dharma come from? Dharma is virtue. Dharma, what we practice, is virtuous action. Our virtuous actions are buddhas’ actions, so they have to come from buddha, it has to come from the power of the Buddha. One way to explain is like this. This Dharma, this fundamental Dharma how we received this, it is not something we did only by ourselves. This Dharma we received from the Buddha. Buddha, this Buddha, where did Buddha come from? Then as I explained before, Buddha came from bodhisattva. Where did the bodhisattva come from? Bodhisattvas come from, for instance… anyway, I already explained before, so no need to repeat, but Buddha came from bodhisattva, bodhisattvas came from where? Came from bodhicitta, bodhisattvas came from bodhicitta. Bodhicitta, cherishing others more than oneself, this is bodhicitta.

Now you can clearly see, can figure out. The whole, the very root, like the trees, from the top where there’s flowers, beautiful fruit and flowers, from there moving down, we check, “Where did this came from? Where did this come from? Where this came from? Where did the branches, then from branches the main tree, then from main tree that which goes down in earth, under the earth, then the root. Where did all of these come from?” So we going, we came to the point, the root, the very last thing, the root. That is the bodhicitta, cherishing others more than oneself, that is like this root, the root of the tree.

So you see now, now you can have some real idea, that the whole samsaric pleasure, even the happiness of the buddhas, arhats, every happiness, everything dependent on bodhicitta, cherishing others more than oneself, bodhicitta. This bodhicitta, again, bodhicitta is not received like this accidentally, without depending on the sentient beings, accidentally it is not received, without depending on the sentient beings. This bodhicitta, receiving bodhicitta, depends on receiving great compassion. Bodhicitta is received from the fundamental thing, the great love and great compassion. This great compassion is not compassion which is for only human beings or for only certain number of, half of the sentient beings. Not like this, this compassion is not like this. This great compassion, great love, what you call great compassion, is compassion which covers each single sentient being, covers each of the sentient beings. There’s not one sentient being that is excluded, left out, excluded, not an object of compassion, not one single sentient being like that.

This compassion, great compassion, why it’s called “great,” that is…actually, I think I explained before why it’s great, no need to repeat. However, the object of this compassion is any being who has not received enlightenment, so not one sentient being is excluded, left out of being object of compassion. If one sentient being is left out, no way to receive Mahayana compassion, it is impossible, no way. From among infinite sentient beings, if one sentient being is excluded, if you don’t have compassion for that, if one sentient being you have renounced, you have compassion for all sentient beings but one sentient beingone little bug who bites here, if you renounce it, if it is not in the object, if you renounce object of compassion, even though you have compassion for all other sentient beings, then your compassion is not Mahayana, you have given up Mahayana compassion. Your Mahayana compassion has collapsed.

That’s why in tantra, also bodhisattva vows, there’s a point saying, also in tantra there’s a saying that if you wish one sentient being, like a dog, or another that it is very easy to renounce, just maybe one fly who gets in food, delicious tea, fly gets in and makes dirty, then, gradually, because attachment to food, tea, then if you wish the fly, kind of get angry and wish for him to suffer, not wishing for him to have peace, happiness, then right that minute you have renounced your love, your tantra precept is broken, bodhisattva vow is broken. It’s very easy, if you don’t check up details with feelings, it’s very easy to happen like this. It doesn’t need so many sentient beings, just one, to break precept, break vow, lose Mahayana compassion.

Like this, even though your friend—it doesn’t matter who, any person—rejects the Buddhadharma, who complains so much, who rejects the Buddhadharma, who kind of complains, kind of saying it is the devil, how terrible it is, and from the devil and following devil path, all kind of terrible thing, worst possible thing that he can say, that he can remember, if he says this and your mind can’t bear it, can’t stand it, your body’s shaking and you can’t stand—anyway, I’m joking, but even if it is like this, especially if you’ve taken a vow, you have to be careful, you have to watch. Otherwise, very easy to renounce the bodhisattva vows, or especially the tantra vows. Tantra vow is much more dangerous than bodhisattva vow.

So now you understand compassion, great compassion. So the fundamental thing is that great compassion is received by depending on each of the sentient beings. Otherwise, if there isn’t this compassion, it is impossible for bodhicitta, impossible to receive all the rest of the Mahayana path.

GENERATING COMPASSION TOWARDS THE ENEMY
That’s easy, now. Then, the person—let’s put this example. There’s a person who always beats me, breaks my hands, legs, always cause me much life danger, always, even besides the violent action of body, also the violent action of speech, always scolding, all kinds of incredible bad things as much possible as he can say, as much as is existing in the world, he says. Also with his mind, always having very harmful mind, always not having compassion with me, always very harmful, always wanting to give harm to me, always thinking bad things for me. This person, just keep this person in front, who always does like this, who does like this for years, years, years, years, in your life, that kind of unbelievable person. Usually in the world like this, person who does like this with action of body, speech, mind, all three violent like this, think, visualize that person, the most worst person that you can think of, the worst enemy that you can think of, visualize there, visualize in front. We can visualize now, we can think in front.

Think, now, think first, first visualize that person, that person who acts like this in all my lifetimes is there sitting. Now think, “By excluding this sentient being,” now concentrate, “By excluding this sentient being, this enemy among the sentient beings, excluding this one, leaving out this one, renouncing this one, without depending on this, it’s impossible to receive the great compassion.” First of all, think like this.

Great compassion, great love, is impossible without depending on this. It is impossible to receive bodhicitta. Concentrate, “It is impossible, without bodhicitta, it is impossible to receive all the Mahayana path. It is impossible to receive enlightenment. Without enlightenment, there also cannot be the arhats’ nirvana state. There wouldn’t even be those path which leads to nirvana. In that way, like in that way, no Buddha, no Sangha. If there’s no Buddha, there’s also no Dharma. If there’s no Dharma, no way to create virtuous actions, no way for me to create good karma.” When it comes to point of karma, that time you think that, in that way it is impossible to have even the chance to create good karma without Dharma, impossible. So, “Without good karma, Dharma, it is impossible to have received all my past perfections, happiness, samsaric perfections, happiness, every single thing, even the Dharma happiness, future samsaric perfections, happiness, all the realizations of the graduated path, even enlightenment, all my most sublime happiness, enlightenment, everything. There’s no way to receive, impossible to happen.”

So, now you can see, impossible to happen, you see now, the whole, in the mind you think, “All my past, present and future, all samsaric perfections, happiness, my receiving realizations, enlightenment, everything, is rooted in, depends on, this field, the enemy. Depends on him, everything depends on him, even though he’s only one sentient being it all depends on him, everything. This is very important. Everything depends on him.”

The way of explaining this is not straight, like this, in the teachings, as far as I saw, not straight like this. It is contained in the teachings, this way to describe, way to think like this going back, how it depends on everything, all one’s happiness, perfections, everything depends on one sentient being, but not straight, exactly like this, but it does contain, just in the outline of the benefits, it does contain it.

This is very true, also it is logical. It is not something that I am making up, like making up in the West. Not like this, making up without reason or knowledge, not like this. There’s reason. Now, how you feel? Now how you feel when you think that everything depends on, everything comes from him, your enemy? Without depending on his kindness impossible to receive even a cup of tea, a drink of water, a few drops of water, impossible even to have this pleasure, impossible without depending on the enemy, kindness of this enemy.

So when you think like this, no longer negative mind, anger, jealousy, those things, no longer exist. The mind is so relaxed, peaceful, also feeling repentance, feeling upset that you have been angry with the person before, you have been negative, you were reacting to the person. You feel upset feel upset, feel sorry. Also at the same time your view, how you see the person, changes over time. You see him in beauty, peaceful, in beauty, more dear, you get a feeling of him being dear. You will see him more precious than a universe full of jewels, even compared to that many jewels you will feel this person more precious, and, like this, so strongly you will feel this person is precious that you want to take care, you want to take care with body, with speech, with mind. You want to take care. It automatically comes, those other things, wanting to take care with body, with speech, with mind, it automatically comes like the mother’s action to the children.

So when we think like this, it is really unbelievable thing. What we have been doing, how we have been acting with people, with the living beings, the sentient beings, how we have been acting with body, speech and mind toward them before now, from since we were born until now, from previous lifetimes until now, when we realize this, how we have been acting, how we have been doing all the opposite, negative things, we feel sorry. “From where did I receive all my happiness, perfections, all my pleasure, all my good things, from where did I receive? From that one who I have been destroying, who I have been harming. How can be possible that I do this, how can I dare to do this?!” These things come, these thoughts come, as you feel strongly the preciousness.

It’s good to visualize, whenever you do checking meditation, good to visualize the sentient beings, the worst enemy, the worst enemy you can think of it. That’s my own example, my own idea. The one who, with body, speech and mind, body always beating, breaking you up, leg, hands, always causing life danger, with speech always scolding, with mind always harming, always thinking harm, always very spiteful, like this very, as worst as you can think, you visualize there. Then, you use this and you think, you make checking meditation. In this way, if you think of the worst person, if you can deal with the worst person, if you can have resolve in your mind with the worst person, then others are very easy. Others, who give you a spank, who say a few terrible words, just a few terrible words, others who look at you with strange eyes or with strange mouth—in the West, always people say that I don’t smile, always I’m showing anger, a person looking with angry face, not smiling!—then any other little problems that you feel that other people give to you, anything, those small things, just one or two times, small thing, easily, maybe you don’t even have to think of the meditation, maybe you don’t even have to think of the technique, the checking meditation, in order to resolve this. Even though the person is harming, maybe it is not harming to you, in your view maybe it is not harming, it is benefiting, he is benefiting, but not harming. From his side he thinks he is harming, but from your side he is not harming, he is benefiting. Like this, for small problems can become possible that you don’t need even to use the checking meditation. So to deal with, to try to solve the mind problem, to make preparation, train the mind like this, trying to solve the mind problem with the worst person, the enemy, like this. This just my own idea or technique, how it can be useful.

Even if you know, even if you check, even if you have clear idea of this second meditation but your mind is not that much trained, when some other people react to you, when some other people cause you trouble, spank you, then at the same time, from deep in heart, some kind of very heavy thing, kind of like black fog, arises. Like if you are on the mountain, away from the valley, and from way down, from there black fog is coming. From the depth of heart, the black fog, the anger or the delusion starts to rise and feels uncomfortable, but at the same time, if you can think of this, if you can remember this second meditation, the benefits of this, how one sentient being is the source of, the field of all my perfections and happiness, everything, enlightenment, everything, all my good things, if you can think of this, no longer can you react, no longer can you say even one word back. You can’t react to even one angry word or kind of jealous word or angry word. Even one word you can’t say, you dare not say. The Dharma wisdom knowing that he or she’s the source of all my future happiness, he’s the field from where all my happiness arises, because of this Dharma wisdom, the reacting stops, you dare not react. Besides hitting with fingers or giving a spank, even just with words, even angry words you can’t, you dare not say.

Last year, one or two years ago, one time, I, normally I don’t work, myself, with the children to take examinations. Before, at the beginning I did a little bit, but after the monks came from India, the disciples, then I didn’t work so much. But one more time when they left for Bodhgaya, during that time, I took care of the examination. Everyday the children repeat the prayers that they have to learn, the philosophical teachings, the texts that they have to learn, and so they have to take an exam, have to check. You have to have an examination of what they can say, whether they have learned by heart or not, whether they’ve been playing. So each time they have to learn a certain number of words, depending on their improvement.

So, one boy couldn’t repeat, he couldn’t say. I think he was playing during the time of the reading, learning the prayer, so he couldn’t say. One boy, one of the young boys couldn’t say. I mentioned what part to recite, he goes on, then he stops there, can’t say, can’t remember, then I continue, like this. Then, afterwards, the idea is that if they are not beaten, then that don’t learn. If they’re not scolded, or they’re not beaten, then they don’t learn, they don’t try. They don’t have fear, then because they don’t have fear, they don’t put effort in their studies. In their studies they don’t put effort, and all the time their mind is out. All the time out of the Dharma study, out of learning. So in that way they waste much time. So the beating, that’s the only way most of the students, especially who are very naughty ones, so actually I try to give him little bit spank on the back, but I couldn’t. I don’t have, I have not even the smell of bodhicitta, nothing; I have no compassion, nothing, nothing. Nothing, no smell, really. Only thinking of myself, not having compassion at all. Even those beings who follow Lesser Vehicle path, like that, even compassion don’t have. So I want to give a little spank, in order to put, in order for him to direct his mind in the study, but it was not possible. I dare not to give a spank, feeling kind of itching, or kind of strange, kind of funny thing, like some kind of fragile thing, something you like very, very much, so it’s strange thing, special thing, you don’t want to destroy it, you don’t want to break even pieces out of that. Kind of that feeling. So, somehow in that moment, something happened, and I dared not to hit him, just in that moment. But then I gave the spank, but that is not with anger mind, you know. I have anger, much anger, much, much anger, my mind is very, the most cruel mind, but that time, that moment, I didn’t have anger but I gave a few spanks. He cried a little bit, but he was again, afterwards, after getting criticism again he started to talk.

[Blessing of tea]

The way we need to care for the field from where we receive all our enjoyments, the crops which we live on, this is like the people in world, the country people, the way how much they take care of their land. They think the land is so important, even the countries think this and they try to get more and more land, if they don’t have their own land or want the land beside the land they have, they try to get the land that belongs to other countries, they try to get it in many ways, by making many plans, by giving many gifts, many money, financial help or either in a political way, such cunning way, or sometimes by force they try to get land, that the land which belongs to other countries, that’s possessed by other countries. Like this, on land you can make field, you can build so many things, you can expand, cities, you can do many things, you can build so many things on the field, or you can plant food. So land is so useful for enjoyments, for the life to exist, so helping, so precious. Therefore usually people in the world they take care, by understanding the benefits, by understanding their life depends on that, understanding the preciousness of that then they take care of the land.

In order to take care of the land, they fight, they do many things. And then even the farmers, they always take care of their field, where there are crops planted, they always come to look at what’s wrong, everything is okay, whether there’s many insects, whether there’s water, much water, or things, what happened and like this, especially when there’s certain dangers, much rain or certain dangers happen, all these people, all the farmers they come around on the field which they feel most precious, which makes, which supports their life, from where they receive their enjoyments.

So, they take care of the land like their heart. Like this, the sentient beings, we should take care of the sentient beings. Like the farmers, the ordinary people, take care of the land, take care of the possessions, like that, in that same way. At least take care like they take care of their possessions or fields. Like this, preotect away from dangers. We take care of sentient beings, keep away from the harmful actions, from suffering, we protect like this. Actually we should take care of the sentient beings much more, a billion times much more the sentient beings than the ordinary people, the farmers, take care of their land, than they take care of fields. They do so many thing, putting much fence around so the animals do not go inside and so many things, take care so much, even at night time they watch, like this, much more, billion times more than this we should take care of other sentient beings.

Because, actually, why? Also enjoyment received form the field, from the crops growing in the field, without depending on the kindness of other sentient beings, there is no way a person can have the land, there’s no way the person can buy the land without depending on the kindness of the sentient beings. Without depending sentient beings there’s no way person receive land, where he can make fields. Without depending on sentient beings there’s no way to receive his enjoyments by growing the crops in the field. No way. So therefore, actually, logically checking, actually renouncing, like ordinary people, renouncing the sentient beings, harming the sentient beings, not taking care of other beings but taking care of one’s own property, things like this, possessions, places, like this, that is wrong, taking care like this, and in order to take care of this giving harm to other sentient beings, that is wrong way, that is wrong.

However, logically checking, as all these enjoyments and pleasure are received from sentient beings, even the land and everything, therefore, the sentient beings are much more worthwhile and beneficial to take care of. To take care of the sentient beings is much more worthwhile, much more reasonable than taking care of property or possessions and giving harm to others, renouncing other sentient beings like this.

Then another way of checking, secondly, how to check. The first way, other way, is by thinking of benefits of bodhicitta, but now directly, kind of more straight talking, without talking about through bodhicitta, receiving happiness through bodhicitta, without talking like this, just talking straight. In the teaching it says, “The sentient beings are like jewels, like the wish-fulfilling jewels. Sentient beings are precious like the wish-fulfilling jewel.” If I explain, the wish-fulfilling jewel, after taking out of ocean, there is dirt, then you clean the jewel then you put it on the top of the banner, you clean it then you put it on the top of the banner, on the top of the house, then you pray, then you make prayer to receive the temporal needs, such as the enjoyments, reputation, anything. By praying like this with the wish-fulfilling jewel then you get, you just easily gain, easily receive without much effort all the temporal enjoyments. So like this, as you can receive all the temporal enjoyments from the wish-fulfilling jewels, like this the sentient beings, the mother sentient beings, also the temporal enjoyments we can receive from mother sentient beings. Just like we receive from the wish-fulfilling jewel, we can receive temporal enjoyments also from mother sentient beings. Therefore, it is like the precious wish-fulfilling jewel.

Oh then, talking, giving little bit example. After the checking meditation on the benefits of cherishing others than oneself, after finishing checking meditation, then one should remember, should emphasize like this, “All the happiness, the perfections, is received from the bodhicitta, cherishing others more than oneself. This bodhicitta is received from all, from each of the sentient beings.” As I gave example in this checking meditation, same as I explained before, the bodhicitta received from, by depending on each of the sentient beings. Oh, then, in the mind, like you made checking meditation on enemy, like this, same thing on each of the sentient beings you think like this, that feeling what you generate after the checking meditation on enemy, like this.

Because of this reason, it is written, it is necessary, all the happiness is coming from bodhicitta, and bodhicitta is received by depending on each of the sentient beings. Because of this, it is reasonable, it is worthwhile, instead of taking care of oneself, to take care of other sentient beings, take care of the mother sentient beings. You point out, kind of conclusion, after checking then the conclusion is like this. This is main thing, the reason why we are checking, trying to understand, to help, to strengthen our heart, to strengthen our mind to take, instead of taking care of oneself, to take care of other sentient beings. Take other sentient beings with the most care, like this. Like this, then the second thing. Like the wish-fulfilling jewel, all the temporal perfections and happiness can be received also from the sentient beings.

You can, also you can remember like this, you can remember, “Without depending on the sentient being, mother, I wouldn’t have this body. I wouldn’t have any pleasures, I wouldn’t get any chance to receive pleasure, to enjoy the pleasures with my senses, which is also due to the kindness of the sentient being.” Regarding the object, the enjoyment of the senses, for instance, just to give example, then like a house. Without depending on, that is, when a house is built many creatures are killed, in the foundations of that so many insects are killed, they’re dead, they get killed when it’s built up. Without their suffering, then there is no way to enjoy the house. All the people work very hard building the house up, making it, so also it’s depending on the people’s hardship, building it, many things.

Also, like this, also the possessions, cars and televisions, all the furniture, all the possessions, those are also made in the different factories. Many people work for those factories, and they use, they put forward their mind energy and their physical energy, they go through much hardship. So without, usually we think like this, the people, usually what we think is, “It is only what I did, having beautiful property and garden like this, beautiful house, having all these possessions, I did it, because I am educated, or I worked. I can make that much money, I can get that much money, so without money how can it be possible that this is built? I did it.” Only thinking, “I did it,” in the depths of heart, completely forgetting those other people who worked, those other sentient beings who suffered for that, those things completely forgetting, but always thinking, “I did it,” only thinking of oneself, “Because I make a lot of money and I have a lot of money, so that’s why it happened.”

However like this, even if this thought comes in the mind, even this such a thought comes in mind, as I explained before, already in other times, money is also, money is not something that you make only by yourself, money is not something without depending on kindness of other sentient beings, without depending on other people. The person, for instance, is thinking “I worked, I made a lot of money, I can earn, I am educated,” however, if there’s no other sentient being, how can you work? There’s no employer. There’s no person who gives you a job, so how can you make money? It’s impossible to make money. If you are alone, no other sentient being, how can you make money? It’s impossible. Impossible, there’s no way to receive money, no way to work, no matter how much you’re educated. However, it is received by the kindness of other sentient beings, even finding a job is by the kindness of sentient beings.

So like this, including money that one has to pay, for the workers, to buy possessions, these things, possessions itself, those other furnishings, all the cars and the vehicles, all these things, house, everything, all those possessions, all this received, all these enjoyments, all this is received by the kindness of the sentient beings, many different sentient beings. Not only human beings, also many other creatures, many other non-human beings, they died for that, or they suffered so much.

For instance, also, food. Second thing we’re talking about is the object of sensory enjoyment, the food, all the food, such as the rice, the corn, vegetables, meat, for instance, how much in the field they have to put this chemical thing to kill all the insects on the vegetables and then on the crops, putting chemical things which kills them. So you see, without killing them, it’s impossible. Not one time, two times, many times they put in this chemical thing, spraying round. Without that, impossible to get food. Without depending on the kindness of them, without the sentient beings suffering, those creatures, also when these vegetables and food, potatoes and those things, when it’s planted, before planting the field has to be fertilized, when it’s fertilized many sentient beings get killed, they die when it’s fertilized by the machines, by animals. Also at the same time other animals, in the different countries they use different animals, such as here in Nepal they use buffalo to fertilize, in the West they have machines, and other countries also they use animals. However, just only to grow the food one time, first time fertilizing, then second time plowing, plowing time many animals dying, afterwards again after planting again there is a need to clean, take out all the garbage which grows there, which disturbs them, there’s many different works, like there’s a kind of a graduated path of farming.

I have only idea about potatoes, and not so much idea about corn and those other things. Potatoes I have some idea because I kind of saw almost the whole trip, whole process. Until we get the potato in our hand at home, out from the field until that time it’s in the hand, there’s so much, in different times, each time there’s much work to be done on the field with potatoes, cleaning them, afterwards the farmer cleans the potatoes, people kind of have to work in different times, so like this, just giving idea so you can think similarly with other food.

So then, each of these times, so many insects they kill with the tools and by working, stepping, and many things. Without those sentient beings suffering in order for us to receive the pleasure, the food, the impossible. And also, not only that, then people, the farmers, for instance, the farmers work and the big animals they work, farmers work very hard, putting water in the soil and so on, so many things, there’s so much, spend so much energy, incredible life they put there, energy like this. Thinking of all this, just even the food, try to remember the whole thing like this, try to see clearly the whole thing, it’s very, very good for the mind, how the sentient beings suffered, very goof to receive awareness of this. Afterwards, again after some, you get very easily by going shop, already in the tin, already fixed in there, you just bring it in the kitchen and then you make it warm, so easy and then you just eat it, very easy. Just like this food is kind of intuitively born, self-existent. However, then after that, some other people buy, then they clean, they cut in pieces, then put in tin, they make cans, then put it in cans, many people in the factories and then they bought. Someone else buy, then finally we get in our hand, finally after working that much number of people and animal worked, finally we get in our hand. Then who eats the food? One person. Who enjoys the food? That number, incredible, unbelievable number of sentient beings suffered for how many who eat? One person. Then he makes kaka. That’s the whole thing, the whole trip.

Anyway so that’s why, just even thinking about one corn, one rice, just for this rice, just that many, that many number of people worked, suffered, but check again, check the continuity of that rice, what about that? Continuity of just one rice, this came from another seed, this came from another plant. And for that plant how much sentient beings suffered? Dead? For each previous continuity, how much sentient beings suffered? Think like this. When we think like this, it ‘s unbelievable, even just when you visualize, try to visualize going back like this, continuity of just one rice, how many sentient beings suffered, even just like this, even just one rice, or even one small spoon of rice. To eat it, to put in mouth in one person’s, one’s own mouth, it’s kind of almost unbearable thing to eat by oneself, it’s unbearable thing just to be eating, just to enjoy by oneself, kind of unbearable thing when you think, when you visualize the whole trip. Like this, this is how it actually is, like this is how the actual thing is, actually how it’s happened, like this. The kindness of the sentient beings is like this.

That’s the reason why, in food offering, why it’s said first check before making food offering, before we check attachment, whether there’s attachment. Then if there’s attachment, then think, “This will make me be born in the lower realms, then preta.” Then self-cherishing thought. “I can’t eat, how can I eat with self-cherishing thought?” Then remembering kindness of sentient beings, second time whether there’s self-cherishing thought or not; if there’s self cherishing thought remember the kindness of sentient beings, how the pleasure of food, how this is received by depending on the kindness of sentient beings. When you think of this, this food, this mouthful, one small cup or bowl, when we think, when you visualize the whole thing, even it’s small, small food, just small this much in a plate, then you dare not, when you think, when you see this, how much they suffered you dare not eat just very easily, impossible to eat unconsciously like this, only for your own sake. It’s an impossible thing, it’s something like what you are is like stone or like wood, not having feeling or anything, not having mind, but once you see the whole thing, it’s impossible thing. This feeling comes, what I am saying, when you check like this, this feeling comes, you dare not eat with self-cherishing thought

Forget about eating with attachment, when you think about how much sentient beings suffered, attachment also doesn’t arise, you don’t get interested in it, it goes away. And also self-cherishing thought, eating only for oneself alone, also that self-cherishing thought goes away. No more, kind of, fear, to eat that. So, as there is fear, unable to eat, just unconscious, just for yourself, for one person. Me eating, enjoying this, is just one person. So then automatically the bodhicitta thought purely arises, strong, the thought of bodhicitta as the motivation becomes stronger, more pure and stronger. Eating the food for the benefit of, not only for my benefit; but only to receive enlightenment for the benefit of other sentient beings. Then like the visualization explains, like this you eat, first checking attachment, second the self-cherishing thought and remembering the kindness. That makes action really pure, that makes the action, the eating action, really pure. So, same thing with any kind of object, object of senses, enjoyment, food and drink, things like this, even water. Without depending on sentient beings, there’s no way to receive the pleasure of water; without sentient beings dying, suffering, there’s no way to get even a cup of tea. Even one cup of hot water there’s no way. Because there’s so many creatures, so many things.

Clothing, same thing, clothing the same. Clothing is made of wool and animal skins, those things. It is made by forcing animals, people forcing animals, animals experiencing suffering from the people, wjp are working, creating negative karma. It is received like this. Some people spend much time, much energy to make to work with machines in the factory to create the clothing, they spend much time. Also animals work, they work like this. By many sentient beings suffering, working, also make fixing, sewing finally you got like this. So also it depends on many other beings, without depending on the kindness of the sentient beings, no way to keep ourselves warm from the cold, no way, impossible. This pleasure is received also by the kindness of the sentient beings. Then just briefly like this.

Also like this, it is impossible to create good karma. For instance, observing karma, our having chance to observe karma that is also kindness, our having chance to create cause of happiness, that is also by the kindness of the sentient beings. For instance, happiness arises from, for example, from keeping five precepts, by observing the ten moralities, keeping the ten moralities. An example for creating good karma, just one example, observing the morality about killing. Without sentient beings how can we create good karma, how can we keep the precept of not killing? If there are no sentient beings, there’s no way to observe the karma, no way to keep the precepts, it is impossible without depending on the sentient beings. So, each good karma has four results. Always a happy result, good result. So all this good result, having a chance to create this good karma, keeping precepts, all this is received by the kindness of the sentient beings.

Then also, how many number of precepts you are keeping, such as 253, eight or however, like the bodhisattva vows, the tantra vows, that we keep, so many of these precepts, so many things, depend on other sentient beings, relate to other sentient beings, to the existence of other sentient beings. So these precepts make us to receive enlightenment quickly, and in order to observe these precepts, many of these precepts, is by depending on sentient beings. So the fundamental, the foundation, of the enlightenment is impossible to develop without depending on the kindness of sentient beings, as it is impossible also to keep these precepts. Such as the Mahayana path, the bodhisattvas’ path, the six paramitas, impossible without sentient beings to make charity, to keep morality, to make patience, to keep patience, it’s impossible. Without an object, sentient beings, how can we learn patience? How can we perfect patience? Impossible. Also, similar to the rest of the practice of the path. Impossible without depending on the kindness of sentient beings to receive any of the paths, the Mahayana path, Paramitayana path, all the paths, also receiving enlightenment, without depending on the kindness of sentient beings, it’s impossible. This is another way, this is more or less talking directly, without talking through bodhicitta. This way, if the mind can think of both ways, both things are extremely good, like this.

Now the final thing, sentient beings are much more precious than jewels. Before, sentient beings are like jewels, because all temporal perfections and happiness can be received from them. Now, sentient beings are much more precious than jewels. Why? From the jewels you can’t receive enlightenment; you can’t stop suffering rebirth; you cannot be reborn in upper realm, you cannot receive path, you cannot receive bodhicitta, you cannot receive enlightenment. But from the sentient beings you can receive all these. So sentient beings are much more precious than the jewels. The jewel is nowhere, when we think of the preciousness of sentient beings the jewel is nowhere, the value of the jewel, no comparison. So therefore, for this reason, you must, because of this reason, and knowing that the self-cherishing thought is only cause of suffering, renounce this. Cherishing oneself is the cause of suffering, so instead of cherishing oneself, cherish others. Renounce the self-cherishing thought and cherish others instead of that. Like this, then exchanging oneself for others. By understanding the shortcomings and benefits then exchanging oneself for others completely, like this. Then as I said yesterday, thinking of other sentient beings as oneself, then take care. How to take care? Taking the most care. How take care? Like oneself. Like I have been taking care of myself before, my body, my possessions, surroundings, happiness, trying to keep away from suffering, like this take care others, think of other sentient beings as me, then take care other sentient beings, their possessions, their body, try to benefit as much as possible, try to help as much as possible, try to help as much as possible for their happiness and keep them away from suffering.

We also change the mind that is not caring for others. Renouncing oneself, not caring for oneself, this is a complete change, changing oneself and other. But we are not thinking that, “His ears are my ear, his nose is my nose, that his beautiful car is mine, his television is mine, his parents are mine, all his things are mine,” not like this, as I said yesterday, not like this. “In this case then there’s no need to fight each other; if everyone is oneness, no need to fight each other. If everything’s oneness no need to fight each other, no need to feel jealous. Since you, and the other person are oneself, how can you feel jealous towards yourself, if it’s oneness?” It’s not like this. Thinking of others means take care as if oneself, take most care as one does for oneself. Renouncing oneself as one usually renounces others. Think of oneself as others, renounce. This thought can definitely be trained. Definitely can be trained. “That’s impossible,” maybe think. Why? “Because body is different, we have different body; his body isn’t linked to me, my body isn’t linked to his, separate body.” Thinking, “We have separate body, why should I be concerned with his suffering? Why should I take care of him as me? Thinking as me and take care of him, why?” If this wrong conception rises, then how to think, hoe to remedy this, is also believing, recognizing our clinging to this body. “I, my,” like this, clinging to this body. There’s no such thing, there’s no such absolute thing, “I” and “my,” no such absolute thing, there’s no such thing. Recognizing this helps to fix that wrong conception.

Also, this body originally parents’ bodies, the combination egg, parent’s blood, nothing to do with us before. In the parent’s womb, it’s parents’ body, parent’s blood, egg, then our consciousness took place here, and then clinging, we just cling to the body. As our consciousness took place, then we just cling to the body, thinking “I, my.” Absolutely believing, absolutely “I” and “my,” kind of really think, believe, caught up in label like this, and completely clinging with attachment like this. Like this, it’s just a label “I” and “my” on the parents’ egg, as the consciousness took place. “I” and “my” are just clinging. Then, perceiving and appearing, and believing, afterwards, after label, that the “I, my” are a kind of oneness, oneness with body. So like this, as this body is just label, “I” and my” actually it is really just like label, like this, same thing. Same feeling we get with this body by clinging, by labeling, just like this the mind can be trained. It’s just a matter of training the mind. The mind can be trained in the same way as the other body, other people’s bodies. Similar way, same thing can happen, clinging to other’s body like one does one’s own body, clinging to other’s happiness like one’s own happiness, as oneself, as one’s body, as one’s happiness. This same feeling can be for taking care of others .

This such feeling, such mind, can definitely arise, such thought can definitely arise, can be trained. Just thinking, “There’s no such absolute thing, because it’s just another label. From his side he call me ‘others,’ but from my side I call him ‘other.’ There’s no such absolute thing; it’s my conception. It’s just dependent. Depending on him I’m other, depending on me he’s other. Just a matter of my conception, just labeling. But there’s no such absolute thing, without my mind creating, such kind of ‘other’ from their side, there’s no such thing.”

Also, think again and again, if there is the conception, “His suffering is, why should I help him stop his suffering? Why? Because it is nothing that is part of my, it is not my suffering,” then also if this wrong conception arises, “It is not my suffering, why should I?” then the logical thing is, when we have headache we go to the doctor by using the whole body, legs and hands, everything. Then we take medicine by hand. Why is it? Why the legs and hands should work to cure the suffering of the head? Why? Because the head suffering is not suffering of hands, suffering legs, not any part of the body suffering. Why? Why the rest of the body should work to stop the suffering? This also, it’s not their suffering. So same thing, like this. “This suffering isn’t mine,” you can think like this. This is just the logic to destroy the wrong conceptions, to help to change the mind, to help in order to change oneself into others.

Then I read this meditation. After this, try to amplify a bit, try to make clear according to my understanding, with the limited knowledge, after this. I think, I’m sure I did not finish translating, the commentary of this meditation, then if you want copies of the commentary of this teaching, then I will, I’m not sure but I’m planning, my hope is that maybe in a future time, also other teachings, kind of book is not finished, read a few lines of that and also the commentary on this, then I go slowly on this commentary, as I know, then if you want copies of this, then maybe you can order or you can ask. Now I just go through this. Actually this part of meditation, it really describes, even if you spend morning and evening it would take three or four days, even you spend the whole time, morning and evening, it carries on, it would take several days according to what is written in the teaching, but this here I just explain the essence, the most important part. I mean, it includes many quotations, many, many things, many other things also involved, many other stories, many other stories, meaning the experiences of the meditators through the bodhicitta practice, especially tong-len practice, this taking other sentient beings’ sufferings, tong-len’s a special practice to generate bodhicitta, to generate compassion, love, to increase compassion and love, a special practice, tong-len, taking other beings’ sufferings and dedicating one’s own body, possessions and merit to others, like we have been doing during this meditation course.

The reason why I suggested this, I thought—normally we don’t do this in the other meditation courses—but even we are doing the perfect human rebirth, the first meditation, even if there is not so much the idea of bodhicitta, if we do this tong-len practice, combine even that first meditation with this tong-len practice, this is kind of mind training and a little bit mind training in bodhicitta, and it is mostly to do with compassion and love, so somehow, just by doing that, combining that, also you create much merit at the same time, even though you have no idea of other special meditation. Even doing the first meditation, so somehow one makes much profit, creating merits, by doing that, this practice relating to the breathing meditation.

Before, purifying oneself, before, breathing meditation like this, with breathing purifying oneself. But second time, purifying others. The third practice is incredible, it’s a bodhisattva’s practice, actually this is bodhisattva’s practice. This kind of, with action of breathing, just this small movement of physical action breathing in and out, with this mind training in bodhicitta relating with this physical action breathing in and out, working for other sentient beings, using the breathing in and out, using this small action that you don’t put much effort, even this the natural, usual thing, you don’t extra effort, dedicating, this making benefit for each of the sentient beings. Each of the sentient beings, even this breathing in and out.

Then this is so powerful if we understand, even Guru Tsongkhapa’s knowledge, the disciple, Guru Tsongkhapa’s disciple Khedrub Je, the most expert and learned of the disciples, who has complete understanding of Guru Tsongkhapa’s teachings, in one teaching he admired Guru Tsongkhapa, saying “You, such a Lord, use even small physical action, breathing in and out, to make benefit for all the sentient beings. Your work of even breathing in and out covers all sentient beings.” Like this he admired the knowledge of Guru Tsongkhapa.

So like this, if you practice the meditation it also becomes same as the bodhisattvas’ action. Bodhisattva, each single movement of their body, everything, is dedicated for sentient beings. Everything, there’s no one single movement, action, that is not done, that doesn’t help all sentient beings. So this third one is very incredibly powerful, and is in such a short time you can gain incredible merits, infinite merits, as I explained before. By dedicating, incredible merits. By taking suffering, incredible merits. In tong-len practice there is so much you can gain, so many benefits to talk about. Many times many meditators have experienced, their sickness get cured by this, by this breathing meditation, many of their problems get cured and life problems, especially disease, epidemic disease, many things can happen by practicing meditation, sincerely practicing this meditation taking other sentient beings’ suffering, dedicating also one’s body, possessions, sincerely doing this, there are many stories have happened, cured epidemic disease, which is difficult to be cured by medicine.

THE EIGHT VERSES OF MIND TRAINING
“How to Practice the Thought Training Teaching,” use the paper. “How to Practice the Thought Training Teaching Entitled The Ever-Flowing Water of the Bodhicitta” It doesn’t matter if I read the wrong way since you have the paper, “The Ever-Flowing Water of Bodhicitta Annihilating… “annihilating” means slaying or destroying, “…the Devil of the Self-Cherishing Mind.”

“Here is shown a teaching in eight verses that includes the whole technique of training the thought in the relative and absolute bodhicitta. It has been composed by Langri Tangpa Dorje Sengye, a disciple of the virtuous friend perfect in all knowledge, Kadampa Potowa Rinchen Sal, who was disciple of the Holy Lamp of the Teachings, Guru Atisha.”

Sorry, I jumped the next line,

“Langri Tangpa Dorje Sengye was the only one of his guru’s eight heart-sons to receive the special instructions of the teaching on changing oneself into others.

“The practice of these teachings has three divisions: the preparation, the actual practice and the completion.

“The Preparation:

"Seated comfortably…”

Then, maybe bed, seat which is warm and soft, as your seat is bumpy—I'm joking! “…seated comfortably…” Having heaters under the bed…

“…seated comfortably, generate a particularly virtuous motivation.

“Then, either make a glance meditation on the lam-rim teachings, from the beginning, from ‘Devotion to the guru’ to the end, or with strong feeling, think as follows....”

Then this means, if you have time to make all sorts of meditations from beginning until end, maybe from guru yoga or some other prayers or even from yourself, from your own mind by going through outlines or however you are doing. If you are doing like this, first you can do that, then after that you can practice this. Also you can do like as I did, after exchanging oneself for others, after this outline, then you can practice this. Before the will, great, before the tong-len, tong-len is included in this practice. Tong-len is here. So after the tong-len, what’s left is the great will and bodhicitta, those two things. Tong-len is here, included in this. Great will, bodhicitta—only those two things left.

You can do like this. Either you go down to the bodhicitta, then you say this prayer, you can do like this. If not, if you don’t have the time to do like this, then you just follow the short motivation here, the strong, short motivation which is here, you just think this, then you practice this meditation, like this you can do, depending on how you want.

“It is inadequate merely to ensure that I shall not be reborn in the suffering lower realms. I must release myself from the whole of the samsara. Yet neither is this enough. All sentient beings have been my mother; there is not a single one who has not. Each has been my mother times without number, and each time has been as kind as my present mother.

“At this very moment, not only are these kind mother sentient beings in great and real suffering, but they are also running constantly to create the cause for more. There is not a minute nor even a second…”

“Cause for more” means, besides that they are suffering now, which is the result of the previous karma, while they’re suffering, they’re creating the cause, indirectly also they are suffering. How? They are creating cause. While they are suffering, they’re creating again cause of suffering which means they will continuously suffer in the future.

“There’s not a minute nor even a second in which they can experience an instant’s happiness. If a mother’s suffering is not alleviated by her own son, then who else?”

By her own son, me, putting it like this, “by her own son, me, who else will do it?"

“Even though it is up to me,” if you feel uncomfortable to call yourself “son,” then you can call “daughter,” doesn’t matter, name doesn’t matter. “Even though it is up to me alone to bear the burden of eradicating the suffering of all mother sentient beings, at the moment I am incapable of relieving the sufferings of even one sentient being. But if I were to receive the Enlightened Holy Body, just one ray of its light could ripen the minds of countless sentient beings, leading them into a state of great peace.

“Therefore, to release all mother sentient beings from suffering and lead them into the most sublime happiness of enlightenment, I must attain the stage of buddhahood.

“The attainment of buddhahood is not without cause or conditions. The principal cause is the two bodhicittas. Therefore, I am going to practice the profound oral teaching on training the mind in bodhicitta.

“Visualize at the level of your forehead, at a distance of a body’s length, your root guru in the manifestation of and inseparable from the Thousand-arm Avalokiteshvara, standing on a moon disc which rests upon a lotus."

“Root guru,” however, this may be a little confused. If you have many gurus who, actually, whenever you visualize Avalokiteshvara, you visualize and the essence you have to think, whole guru, all gurus. Even though it is said “root guru,” but you have to think the essence is the whole guru. Even it is the root guru, there’s no such thing, root guru separate from other gurus. There’s no such root guru. Also, gurus are also oneness. Generally it is like this. Therefore, however, that is what you should think. Among the gurus, whoever is more beneficial to your mind, whoever has been more effective to your mind, to change your mind, that one think as root guru. Like for Atisha it was Lama Serlingpa. Even though he has 157 gurus, Lama Serlingpa from whom he received bodhicitta, who has been so effective, whose teachings have been so effective for his mind, that can be root guru. But it is not, kind of, separate. That doesn’t mean you’re not visualizing other gurus. But also, you have to think of the others also in the same manifestation of Avalokiteshvara.

Then:

“Now perform the seven-limb practice:

La-ma chan-ra-zig zig-la ch’ag-tsal-lo
Ngo-sham yi-trul cho-trin ma-lu-bul
T’o-me na-sag dig-tung t’am-cha-shag
Kye-p’ag ge-wa nam-la je-yi rang
Kor-wa ma -dong b’ar-d’u leg-shug-na
Dro-la cho-gyi kor-lo kor-wa-dang
Dag-shan ge-nam j’ang-ch’ub ch’en-por-ngo”

This is seven-limb practice. Whether you say in Tibetan or not, the English meaning’s important.

“I prostrate to guru Avalokiteshvara,”

That is the prostration.

“Each and every offering, including those really performed and those mentally transformed.”

That means I prostrate to Guru Avalokiteshvara and make offering, making of the offerings that which is mentally transformed and actually formed. That is the offering.

“Every sin collected from the beginninglessness of samsaric life is confessed.”

That is the confession.

“I rejoice at the ordinary beings’ and noble beings’ actions.”

These actions should be, here just action, it should be virtuous action, because action where we should feel rejoicefulness is the virtuous action, not the negative action. “I rejoice at all ordinary beings’ and noble beings’ virtuous actions.” “Noble being” means person who has received the path and beings who have received enlightenment. “Ordinary beings” are those who have not received the path, any ordinary sentient being who has created merit. Also, “ordinary beings” also includes yourself, not only other sentient beings. Also you can, you are also object of rejoicefulness, your virtuous actions done in past, present, future, also you can feel rejoicefulness. So you are also included in this.

“Please, Buddha, by living as our guide until samsara ends, reveal the teachings to sentient beings.”

That includes two things, asking, requesting, the Buddhas to live long and beseeching to turn the Dharma wheel.

“Because of the merits created by myself and others, may the two bodhicittas ripen and Buddhahood be received, for the sake of all sentient beings.”

That is dedicating merit.

“Now make the following heartfelt request:

‘Precious guru, please bestow upon me your blessings. Help stop any wrong conceptions from ever entering my mind, make my mind one with the Dharma, bring me correct realizations of the whole path, from guru devotion to the completion of training, the undefiled Vajra state, the undefiled, unified Vajra state’”

The request is okay. However, the request is also, in the requesting is to receive the blessing from the guru devotion up to enlightenment, then to not have any distractions to receive, not any distractions for the mind to become oneness with Dharma. The Dharma to go on the path and to not have any distractions from the path, to actualize the path. There are also prayers like this which comes from the, usually the lam-rim, after the mandala offering, from the Jorcho text also, like this it comes. And you can also put a prayer like this here, if you know. But this request, as it is, this is also okay, this is not wrong. It’s okay.

“And please bestow upon me special blessings, so that I shall receive immediately the loving, compassionate bodhicitta.

“Guru Avalokiteshvara is extremely pleased by your request.”

Think, “By my request, Guru Avalokiteshvara is extremely pleased.”

“Together with the lotus and moon descends to the crown of your head.”

First you visualize it here, then second time you bring it down, after the request, then seated on the, on your head, like this, on the lotus and moon disc.

"The Actual Practice:

“Determined to obtain the greatest possible benefit from all the sentient beings who excel even the wish-fulfilling jewel, may I hold them most dear at all times.”

When you say this, you concentrate in the meaning and say it slowly, don’t rush. Put your concentration there and say it slowly. “To obtain the greatest possible benefit all sentient beings who excel…”

"The greatest possible benefit from all sentient beings,” that includes the temporal perfections, happiness, samsaric perfection, happiness, everything, received from sentient beings. Also ultimate happiness, perfection, received from sentient beings. “Greatest possible” means, besides temporal, the samsaric perfection, happiness, besides this also ultimate happiness, perfection, enlightenment. The enlightenment is also received from the sentient beings. So, “who excel even the wish-fulfilling jewel” means, like this, as I explained before. Most of this is easy to understand because I have already explained the shortcomings and benefits of these two different thoughts, so it’s easy to understand. “May I hold them most dear at all times.” Like this.

“Visualization:”

Oh, this is purification, how to make purification.

“From the seed syllable letter HRIH...”

HRIH is at Avalokiteshvara’s heart. HRIH is seed-syllable. Guru Avalokiteshvara’s omniscient mind is manifested in this letter HRIH, like this.

“On the lotus and the moon at the heart of Avalokiteshvara, much blissful white nectar streams down the center of your head, filling your whole body, purifying all obscurations, especially those that prevent you from holding others most dear, and bringing all realizations, especially those of holding others most dear.”

This is how to think during the visualization time. After you say this prayer, this teaching, then you make purification thinking this.

Now second verse:

“When in the company of others, may I always consider myself the lowest of all and from the depth of my heart hold them dear and supreme.”

After that again make purification. Repeat the visualization, the nectar purifying, especially purifying the obscurations that prevent you from holding others dear and supreme and again bringing the realizations of how to do this. Bringing the realizations in the mind, the power, the realization, especially to do this, to keep always others high. Besides other realizations. Or you can, or also, if it’s little bit complicated, then you can do like the first visualization, you can do similarly. Also you can, like this also you can do, if the second one is complicated.

Third one:

“Vigilant, the moment a delusion appears endangering myself and others, may I confront and avert it without delay.”

As one of my gurus, from whom I received this teaching, he told me this means that, like thief, enemy coming from outside the door, coming and just the time as you know he’s coming nearby the door, then you just avert it, you just smash it, destroy it. Just as soon as you recognize him coming inside your house, just you know, destroy it, not let him come in your house. Just like this, with delusion in your mind, not letting to the mind generate the delusion. Like this, averting the delusion. Like the thief, someone coming, like you are holding a big hammer, very, very heavy, big hammer, like this. Waiting, as soon as thief comes, then. completely smashing his head, breaking his brains into hundred of pieces by hitting once. If you are enough powerful, if your meditation is powerful, if your technique is powerful, can be done like this, destroying the delusion.

Fourth one:

“Whenever I see beings of wicked nature who are overwhelmed by violent, negative actions and sufferings, may I hold such rare ones dear, as if I had found a precious treasure.”

That, this is little bit difficult to understand. Other verses may be easy. This perhaps you might find a little bit difficult to understand. “Negative, the wicked nature in the mind” doesn’t mean physical things. “Wicked nature in the mind” means very, very cruel, incredible cruel, very negative action. This negative action is the worst karma. The five actions, killing an arhat, killing a holy being, killing parents, the worst negative karma that is created. If you want to know what it means. Then suffering, this suffering, besides that mind is so negative, incredible cruel like this, incredible cruelty, there is great suffering. Then, so negative, selfish, everything. Besides negative karma created, worst negative karma, then, also, physically also sick, whole body full of epidemic disease, the wounds which spreads round… Like leprosy, like worst thing, like leprosy, such very dangerous disease, person suffering. Besides, those two things. It means like that kind of person. “May I hold such rare ones dear as if I had found a precious treasure.”

Then anyway, I will talk a little bit on this, then. You may think, you may have the question, “All the sentient beings are precious, why is this specific person precious? Why one should think, why I should think precious, specifically?” That is like this. This is very good, if I talk a little bit on just this point, and others not explaining.

By seeing this, such a person like this, all three things like this, wicked nature, all the actions like this created, suffering like this, incredible, unbearable, he becomes object of my compassion. Compassion easily rises. Then from this, bodhicitta arises, I receive bodhicitta. Then from this I receive enlightenment. So like the other explanation that I already did. But if you’re not introduced, you cannot understand the meaning of this. So therefore, “My receiving enlightenment, all these realizations, that comes from him.” For instance, bodhisattvas, arhats, those high bodhisattvas, those who have not received enlightenment, they are sentient beings, but I don’t feel compassion for them. I don’t feel compassion for them. Person who, holy being, but not received enlightenment, arhat who is out of samsara, even though still sentient being, we don’t feel compassion. We find it easy to feel compassion for suffering, like the wounded dogs. Even the wounded dogs, even the terrible wounded dog that is almost dying, can’t move his body, broken legs, toward this it is easy to generate compassion, more so than toward that other person who has all the possessions, who has everything all right. Toward them is difficult, but easy to generate compassion, easy to generate bodhicitta on the basis of this very suffering, sentient being.

So therefore, in that way talking, why it’s mentioning “precious,” that, this person is “precious like jewel.” Should think, “precious like jewel.” As it’s explained in the teaching, the jewel itself, first we take from the ocean, itself has got dirt. But jewel itself cannot help itself to get out of the dirt, but after you cleaned and you pray, you receive all the temporal perfections, happiness from that. So like this, sentient being himself cannot help himself to get out of the suffering, but it becomes basis from where I receive all my, enlightenment, all the realizations, all the happiness, everything from him. By him being the basis of my compassion and my bodhicitta. Like this, with jewel, when we find jewel, because of the preciousness, the benefits of the wish-fulfilling jewel, when we find, we don’t throw it out. We take care, as best as possible, because of the benefits. Just like this, when we see this person like this, when we see such this sentient being suffering like this, we should not run away. Should not consider him as enemy, should not run away. “Oh, I will get his disease, oh, he is terrible. Don’t look at him. Don’t help him. Oh, don’t go nearby,” Don’t feel as enemy. Don’t run away. Don’t feel as enemy. Take care. Hold him most dear. Oh, when this is found, when such a thing found, do like this, holding most dear, like difficult-to-find jewel.

For normal person, receiving all the temporal pleasure and perfections, receiving temporal perfections, happiness, whatever he wants easily receiving, that is very difficult. That’s why the jewel is precious, finding jewel is so precious. It’s very difficult to find and precious. So like this, receiving all the enlightenment, all these things, bodhicitta, all these are very rare, very difficult. So the best person from whom we receive compassion, bodhicitta, he, this person on whom we can easily generate, receive these realizations, this person is also very precious. So we should hold as the most dear.

The way of helping that one is, first, if you can help through words, through communication. And if there’s no way to help through communication, if there’s a way to help with materials, food or other things, if there’s other way to help. Even that is impossible, then you make tong-len practice. You take his suffering. You make tong-len practice, the mental practice, dedicating your happiness and merits, everything, for him, for his happiness, for his receiving enlightenment, for his release from samsara, and take all his suffering, his present suffering, all the negative karma, all the future suffering, everything. Like this you try to help him in that way, mentally, try to benefit him with your pure thought of bodhicitta.

Fifth one:

“When out of envy, others mistreat me with abuse, insult or dislike, may I accept…” This includes many other things besides abusing, insulting, “May I accept the defeat and offer the victory to others.”

Sixth one:

“When someone I have benefited and in whom I have great hopes gives me terrible harm, may I regard him as my holy guru.”

These words are very powerful words, this last one, also much to talk about. By depending on guru, we receive teachings, we receive realizations, and we receive enlightenment. Like this, this sentient being, we can look at in similar way as guru, because by depending on this sentient being, by mind training like this, on the basis of those sentient beings, we can learn patience. We can learn six paramitas from them. On the basis of them we can learn six paramitas, we can develop our practice, we can receive bodhicitta, we can receive the whole path and receive enlightenment. So they are also, in another way, like guru. So how to look at as guru is like this, just, whatever it is said here, directly explaining like this.

Seventh one:

“In short, both directly and indirectly do I offer every benefit and happiness to all my mothers. May I secretly take upon myself all their harmful actions and sufferings.”

“Secretly” there can be “indirectly” there are different meanings explained in the teachings. “Directly” means present happiness, all the present perfections, happiness, dedicating for. “Indirectly” means even though you have created karma now, but result of perfection, happiness not received yet, but also even the future ones that are received, dedicating for them, indirectly. “Indirectly” also means, it can be understood also in that way. Then “secretly” means tong-len practice done by mind. Also, we help physically as best one can, we help others, to release others’ suffering. But secretly, also mentally, this tong-len practice doing, taking other sentient beings’ suffering mentally. If physically it can’t be done, then secretly like this. If you can, really, with the physical actions, if you can really stop other beings’ sufferings, then do that. Then if not, then secretly, mentally, taking it, making tong-len practice, taking other sentient beings’ suffering. Also this means all the secretly practicing, tong-len practice is very secret practice, only mind action, does not depend on body. Your body can be doing anything, not looking like it is practicing Dharma, but mind is living in Dharma practice. Tong-len, other people can’t see it, can’t see “That other person is practicing Dharma.” Other people cannot see. Making prostrations, mandala offerings, it is different from those things. Tong-len is very good. Tong-len is very good practice because it’s very difficult to get involved with self-cherishing thought, the evil thought of worldly dharma, because other people cannot see your mind action.

Eighth one:

“Undefiled by the stains of the superstitions of the eight worldly dharmas, by perceiving all Dharmas as illusory, may I be released from the bondage of attachment.”

All these practices, praying to not be involved, to not be possessed by the eight worldly dharmas. De dag kün kyang chhö gyä kyi / Tog päi dri mä ma pag shing / Chhö kün gyu mar she päi lö /Zhen me chhing wa lä dröl shog. “By not seeing the existence as illusory,” then, perceiving this as truly existent, as absolutely existent, this makes one to cling, generate attachment and clinging, toward oneself and possessions and others. So, in that way, that is the bondage of attachment. That way, one is bound, this attachment, this wrong conception, binds oneself in the samsara. So, then praying, “By perceiving all dharmas as illusory, may I be released from the bondage of attachment.”

Next,

"The Completion:

“Then request: ‘Precious gurus, please bless me and all mother sentient beings to attain the precious guru’s enlightenment stage.’

“Extremely pleased by this request, your guru descends through the crown of your head to your heart. Much blissful white light emanates from the seed syllable HRIH at the heart of the Guru Avalokiteshvara, passing through infinite space in all directions, purifying all sentient beings. Then visualize all these beings as....”

One thing to clarify is, one thing to understand is, as I explained yesterday, I think this way is more comfortable, Guru Avalokiteshvara being down at the heart. And then send much radiant light, blissful light, kind of like sun rays. Burned, like all the obscurations, everything, all the impurities of body and mind, everything is completely burned, completely disappear, not existing, and the whole body becomes light, burned, become very blissful, formation, just formation of light, like the rainbow.

Then what happens is, as I explained, to absorb here, but I think this way is more comfortable, I think, by checking. Then think, “My speech, body become oneness with Guru Avalokiteshvara’s holy speech, body, mind.” Then Guru Avalokiteshvara is at the heart but he kind of become oneness with you, instead of absorbing to you, which is maybe not so comfortable, so think, “My body, speech and mind become oneness with Avalokiteshvara.” At the same time, Avalokiteshvara at the heart, kind of no separation. Before there was separation. Now no separation, completely oneness, your whole your body is completely in the pure manifestation of Avalokiteshvara, the Thousand-arm Avalokiteshvara. Then from there, again there’s six realms’ sentient beings around, then you purify the other sentient beings, and they, too, become Avalokiteshvara.

“Finally make this dedication prayer:

‘“May the suffering and the causes of suffering of all sentient beings ripen on me now, and may all sentient beings receive the results of my virtuous actions and bodhicitta.’”

This dedication is very, very, very good. It’s very, very good. It’s very strong. It’s very good.

“It’s essential to wish and pray like this....” and, so the final thing is just I’m talking extra things. That you can just leave out, I am just reading the part of the instructions.

“It is essential to wish and pray like this always, to create such merit constantly, and to find such virtuous gurus, and meet such virtuous friends in all future lives.”

This is just talking about how to think. One usually should desire, should have, to be able to continuously generate bodhicitta or to receive bodhicitta. Conditions for receiving bodhicitta.

“This teaching was dictated by Thubten Zopa, who is possessed by the devil of the self-cherishing mind and the pride of being a Mahayanist…”

...which is completely true. Not one single mistake. “Possessed” means self-cherishing thought mind is living inside…while coming on the direct flight from Rome to Delhi in October, 1975, and completed at the residence of Mrs Danielle Rouch in New Delhi, India, soon after.

“It has been done not only...” This translation started from the Rome, actually in the morning time. “It has been done not only from my own....” We had planned to translate before, long time, but we didn’t have, somehow been very lazy, so all of a sudden started from there.

“It has been done not only for my own benefit, but with the thought that it may help those intelligent, young Westerners of today, who have found that their lives are full of problems for which they can find no solution. These seekers are greatly fortunate, merely being able to see a teaching such as this, the bodhicitta thought-training, that contains the method of transforming any of the present day’s sufferings into happiness, while leading the practitioners to the ultimate happiness of enlightenment.”

This, what it means is, besides, by practicing this, not only creating cause to achieve enlightenment, not only creating cause to achieve ultimate happiness. But, even the present, even now in this life, whatever suffering, whatever temporal, samsaric suffering, problem is there, everything you can make, everything you can turn, transform, by your mind. Not by your physical body, but your mind. Just only by your mind. All these problems that you experience in the West or in the East, whatever, wherever, alone or with people. All this you can make into medicine, it can become path to enlightenment. All this suffering, any problem that you experience can become path to enlightenment. By the mind, it can change, the mind can make it path to enlightenment. So as you make it in the path to enlightenment, the suffering that you have, as you’re using it, as you’re making it path to enlightenment, at the same time it becomes, instead of becoming suffering, it becomes pleasure. What you’re suffering now, all your problems, life problems that usually people experience, instead of becoming problem, for you it is pleasure. Maybe for other people, other people may see you’re suffering, but for your mind it is pleasure. But if it is not practiced, by just keeping this paper, doesn’t help. Just like having house full of books, prescriptions of medicine, how to take medicine, piles of books in library, but person, if he doesn’t take medicine, following that prescription, then his delusions cannot be cured. Same thing. Has to come through this practice.

“This precious bodhicitta teaching is priceless. The benefits it brings could never be bought by even countless galaxies full of wish-fulfilling jewels.”

Actually, because of the benefits of the teaching, we usually say, if you want to sell even the teaching itself, even the explanation, that teaching which is in the form which you can see, because the benefits of this teaching, understanding in this text is priceless, the benefit is incredible, there is not enough time to count benefits. So just like this, also teaching itself, usually materials we value in regards to how useful they are, like diamonds, jewels, according to how useful they are we make price. Like this, same thing with the teaching, in regards the benefits of this, it’s incredible, unbelievable. All the happiness, ultimate, temporal, everything, comes from this. So unbelievable. So therefore, even if you pay, even you give to buy this teaching, even you pay even this book, you pay a world or universe full of jewels, even you pay that much, still you cannot buy. What it means is you cannot buy because of benefits of the teaching.

Generally also we have saying like this in Tibet. Even one small text, which has a few lines of teaching, actually you can’t make cost, there’s no way to make cost. It’s costless, costless? [Student: Priceless] Priceless. And if you practice, if you really learn by heart and practice, then it is really worthwhile that I translated and also explained briefly just tonight like this. Oh, mainly it is for your purpose. There are many other thought trainings, but this is the essence. This is the body of the thought training, the main essence of thought training, the main thing. Even though there are other thought trainings, this is the main thing. If you understand this, if you are doing this, then also you are doing, practicing other thought training practices.

There is other teaching, yet, which is not finished. I think that at retreat time, if I’m not lazy, then I am thinking to continue, slowly. If you want, if you think it’s useful, then perhaps maybe you can ask to send copies of the translation and the commentary. Anyway, the difficult parts, which you may find difficult, I tried to explain a little bit. Only maybe shunyata part, there’s two bodhicittas, shunyata, the absolute and relative bodhicitta. Two, both are contained here. It’s very wide, not simple subject, it’s a very wide subject. It can go very, it can be so many expanded. Anyway, what I’ve said, whole instruction, is to constantly pray to be able to receive bodhicitta soon. If you wish and if you pray to receive bodhicitta, if you train your mind in bodhicitta, just by that, automatically you become beneficial for all the sentient beings, just by training the mind. Your mind training in bodhicitta, automatically you become beneficial for other sentient beings all the time, besides yourself.

By the way, your helping others, benefiting others, is benefiting yourself. Helping others, benefiting others is at the same time helping oneself, benefiting oneself. Even though you don’t work to relieve your suffering, you’re working for other sentient beings to relieve their suffering, you’re caring more for others, you renounce yourself, you take care of others, at the same time, psychologically, how it works, how it benefits you, actually, your taking care others is also taking care of yourself, by the way. The best way of taking care of yourself. Your motive is not trying to cure your own suffering, it is trying to cure other sentient beings’ sufferings. That is best way of stopping your suffering. Quicker, more powerful. Like this, anyway, I explained before the benefits of bodhicitta, during those times. That’s the most important thing in the life.

Then, continuously to have, whatever you’re working, continuously to have wish to practice Dharma. Continuously to have wish to mind training in bodhicitta. Continuously even to have wish is so lucky, so lucky, even you have no time to meditate, just even to have strong wish always, “Oh, how wonderful if I can receive bodhicitta. Oh, how good it is, how it can be beneficial.” Just even that is incredible, very lucky. Then if you pray like this, definitely can, definitely or quickly can receive bodhicitta.

I think that’s all. Dharma practice, bodhicitta, thought training or the Dharma practice, is the only thing that which we can carry with us to the future life. Even when we die we can carry to our future life, which can benefit our future life. That which we can carry with us to the future life and which can benefit is only this, only Dharma. Worldly activity, body, possessions not any of these. Even an atom we can’t carry to the future life with us. When we die we can’t carry even one single atom from this body, no choice. Mind has to go, like hair pulling from the butter, mind alone has to leave.

This is my final talk, who are leaving, who are not leaving.

[Ge wa di… Dedication prayers]

[End of Eighth Kopan Course]